U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science

Program for Ecosystem Research


The main products (or deliverables) of the program are scientific journal articles, books, and book chapters that describe the program's research results.

Program publications are below divided into (a) Books and (b) Refereed Journal Articles and Book Chapters. Other publication types (e.g., reports, conference proceedings and workshop reports, letters, and abstracts) are not included below.


The book North American Temperate Deciduous Forest Responses to Changing Precipitation Regimes (Hanson and Wullschleger, 2003) is a comprehensive analysis of the first eight years of the program's Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. Fifteen of the chapters in Karnosky et al. (2001) and (2003) document results from the program-sponsored Rhinelander, Wisconsin, FACE [free-air CO2 enrichment] experiment. The Pritchard and Amthor (2005) monograph is a synthesis of known effects of climatic change on major crops; its preparation was supported in part by the program. The Pace and Groffman (1998), Galloway et al. (2002), and Canham et al. (2003) books resulted from conferences that were supported in part by the program.

2003 to present

Canham CD, Cole JJ, Laurenroth WK (editors) (2003) Models in Ecosystem Science. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 456 p

Hanson PJ, Wullschleger SD (editors) (2003) North American Temperate Deciduous Forest Responses to Changing Precipitation Regimes. Ecological Studies, Vol. 166. Springer, New York, 472 p

Karnosky DF, Percy KE, Chappelka AH, Simpson C, Pikkarainen JM (editors) (2003) Air Pollution, Global Change and Forests in the New Millennium. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 469 p

Pritchard SG, Amthor JS (2005) Crops and Environmental Change. Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY, 421 p

1993 to 2002

Galloway J, Cowling E, Erisman JW, Wisniewski J, Jordan C (editors) (2002) Optimizing Nitrogen Management in Food and Energy Production and Environmental Protection. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Lisse, The Netherlands, 1013 p

Karnosky DF, Ceulemans R, Scarascia-Mugnozza GE, Innes JL (editors) (2001) The Impact of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases on Forest Ecosystems. CAB International, Wallingford (UK), 357 p

Pace ML, Groffman PM (editors) (1998) Successes, Limitations and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science. Springer-Verlag, New York, 499 p

Refereed Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Chapters in books listed in the Books section above are not listed below. Beginning in 2008, available links to online abstracts or full articles are included (highlighted article titles).

In press

Bradford MA, Davies CA, Frey SD, Maddox TR, Melillo JM, Mohan JE, Reynolds JF, Treseder KK, Wallenstein MD (2008) Thermal adaptation of soil microbial respiration to elevated temperature. Ecology Letters 11:

Breshears DD, Myers OB, Meyer CW, Barnes FJ, Zou CB, Allen CD, McDowell NG, Pockman WT (2008) Tree die-off in response to global change-type drought: mortality insights from a decade of plant water-potential measurements. Frontiers in Ecology

Dunn RR, Sanders NJ (in press) Climatic gradients drive patterns of ant diversity and composition at local, regional and global scales. In: L Lach, C Parr, K Abbott (eds) Ant Ecology.

Hanson CA, Allison SD, Bradford MA, Wallenstein MD, Treseder KK (2008) Fungal taxa target different carbon sources in forest soil. Ecosystems

Hellmann JJ, Pelini SL, Prior KM, Dzurisin JDK (2008) The response of two butterfly species to climatic variation at the edge of their range and the implications for poleward range shifts. Oecologia

HilleRisLambers J, Harpole WS, Schnitzer S, Tilman D, Reich PB (2008) The effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen deposition and declining diversity on seed production of prairie grasses and forbs. Ecology

Manzoni S, Jackson RB, Trofymow JA, Porporato A (2008) The global stoichiometry of litter nitrogen mineralization. Science

Nabity PD, Zavala JA, DeLucia EH (2008) Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory. Annals of Botany

Rogers A, Gibon Y (2008) Enzyme kinetics: theory & practice. In: J Schwender, BH Junker (eds) Plant Metabolic Networks. Springer, Berlin, xxx-xxx

Sanders NJ (in press) Global databases and global ant diversity: it's about time and space. In: L Lach, C Parr, K Abbott (eds) Ant Ecology.

Sanders NJ, Dunn RR, et al. (in press) A diversity of elevational diversity gradients. In: C Korner, E Spehn (eds) Data Mining for Global Trends in Mountain Biodiversity.


Adair K, Schwartz E (2008) Evidence that ammonia-oxidizing archaea are more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soils along an elevation gradient in northern Arizona, USA. Microbial Ecology 56:420-426

Bronson DR, Gower ST, Tanner M, Linder S, Van Herk I (2008) Response of soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal forest to ecosystem warming. Global Change Biology 14:856-867

Casteel CL, O'Neill BF, Zavala JA, Bilgin DD Berenbaum MR, DeLucia EH (2008) Transcriptional profiling reveals elevated CO2 and elevated O3 alter resistance of soybean (Glycine max) to Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica). Plant, Cell and Environment 31:419-434

Crutsinger GM, Reynolds WN, Classen AT, and Sanders NJ (2008) Disparate effects of plant genotypic diversity on foliage and litter arthropod communities. Oecologia 158:65-75

Darbah JNT, Kubiske ME, Nelson N, Oksanen E, Vapaavuori E, Karnosky DF (2008) Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction. Environmental Pollution 155:446-452

Dermody O, Long SP, McConnaughay K, DeLucia EH (2008) How do elevated CO2 and O3 affect the interception and utilization of radiation by a soybean canopy? Global Change Biology 14:556-564

Dermondy O, O'Neill BF, Zangerl AR, Berenbaum MR, DeLucia EH (2008) Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on leaf damage and insect abundance in a soybean agroecosystem. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 2:125-135

Dijkstra P, LaViolette CM, Coyle JS, Doucett RR, Schwartz E, Hart SC, Hungate BA (2008) 15N enrichment as an integrator of the effects of C and N on microbial metabolism and ecosystem function. Ecology Letters 11:389-397

Drake JE, Stoy PC, Jackson RB, DeLucia EH (2008) Fine-root respiration in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest exposed to elevated CO2 and N fertlization. Plant, Cell and Environment 31:1663-1672

Edwards IP, Upchurch RA, Zak DR (2008) Isolation of fungal cellobiohydrolase I genes from sporocarps and forest soils by PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74:3481-3489

Engel EC, Weltzin JF (2008) Can community composition be predicted from pairwise species interactions? Plant Ecology 195:77-85

Froberg M, Hanson PJ, Todd DE, Johnson DW (2008) Evaluation of effects of sustained decadal precipitation manipulations on soil carbon stocks. Biogeochemistry 89:151-161

Garten CT Jr, Classen AT, Norby RJ, Brice, DJ, Weltzin JF, Souza L (2008) Role of N2-fixation in constructed old-field communities under different regimes of [CO2], temperature, and water availability. Ecosystems 11:125-137

Gerten D, Luo Y, Le Maire G, Parton WJ, Keough C, Weng E, Beier C, Ciais P, Cramer W, Dukes JS, Sowerby A, Hanson PJ, Knapp AK, Linder S, Nepstad D, Rustad L, Sowerby A (2008) Modelled effects of precipitation on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones. Global Change Biology 14:2365-2379

Gu L, Hanson PJ, Post WM, Kaiser DP, Yang B, Nemani R, Pallardy SG, Meyers T (2008) The 2007 eastern US spring freeze: increased cold damage in a warming world? BioScience 58:253-262

Habeck CW, Meehan TD (2008) Mass invariance of population nitrogen flux by terrestrial mammalian herbivores: an extension of the energetic equivalence rule. Ecology Letters 11:898-903

Johnson DW, Todd DE Jr, Hanson PJ (2008) The effects of throughfall manipulation on soil nutrient status: results of 12 years of sustained wet and dry treatments. Global Change Biology 14:1661-1675

Kelly AE, Goulden ML (2008) Rapid shifts in plant distribution with recent climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105:11823-11826

Knapp AK, Beier C, Briske D, Classen AT, Luo Y, Reichstein M, Smith MD, Smith SD, Bell JE, Fay PA, Heisler JL, Leavitt SW, Sherry R, Smith B, and Weng E (2008) Consequences of more extreme precipitation regimes for terrestrial ecosystems. BioScience 58:811-821

Kostiainen K, Kaakinen S, Warsta E, Kubiske ME, Nelson ND, Sober J, Karnosky DF, Saranpaa P, Vapaavuori E (2008) Wood properties of trembling aspen and paper birch after 5 years of exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3. Tree Physiology 28:805-813

Lau JA, Strengbom J, Stone LR, Reich PB, Tiffin P (2008) Direct and indirect effects of CO2, nitrogen and community diversity on plant-enemy interactions. Ecology 89:226-236

Lesaulnier C, Papamichail D, McCorkle S, Ollivier B, Skiena S, Taghavi S, Zak DR, van der Lelie D (2008) Elevated atmospheric CO2 affects soil microbial diversity associated with trembling aspen. Environmental Microbiology 10:926-941

Luo Y, Gerten D, Le Marie G, Parton WJ, Weng E, Zhou X, Keough C, Beier C, Ciais P, Cramer W, Dukes JS, Emmett B, Hanson PJ, Knapp A, Linder S, Nepstad D, Rustad L (2008) Modeled interactive effects of precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones. Global Change Biology 14:1986-1999

McDowell NG, White S, Pockman WT (2008) Transpiration and stomatal conductance across a steep climate gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains. Ecohydrology 1:193-204

McDowell NG, Pockman WT, Allen C, Breshears DD, Cobb N, Kolb T, Plaut J, Sperry J, West A, Williams D, Yepez EA (2008) Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? New Phytologist 178:719-739

O'Neill BF, Zangerl AR, DeLucia EH, Berenbaum MR (2008) Longevity and fecundity of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) on foliage grown under elevated carbon dioxide. Environmental Entomology 37:601-607

Pregitzer KS, Burton AJ, King JS, Zak DR (2008) Soil respiration, root biomass, and root turnover following long-term exposure of northern forests to elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3. New Phytologist 180:153-161

Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Pregitzer KS, Wright IJ, Oleksyn J, Machado J-L (2008) Scaling of respiration to nitrogen in leaves, stems and roots of higher land plants. Ecology Letters 11:793-801

Riikonen J, Kets K, Darbah J, Oksanen E, Sober A, Vapaavuori E, Kubiske ME, Nelson N, Karnosky DF (2008) Carbon gain and bud physiology in Populus tremuloides and Betula papyrifera grown under long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3. Tree Physiology 28:243-254

Taylor G, Tallis MJ, Giardina CP, Percy KE, Miglietta F, Gupta PS, Gioli B, Calfapietra C, Gielen B, Kubiske ME, Scarascia-Mugnozza GE, Kets K, Long SP, Karnosky DF (2008) Future atmospheric CO2 leads to delayed autumnal senescence. Global Change Biology 14:264-275

Uddling J, Teclaw RM, Kubiske ME, Pregitzer KS, Ellsworth DS (2008) Sap flux in pure aspen and mixed aspen--birch forests exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone. Tree Physiology 28:1231-1243

Weston DJ, Gunter LE, Rogers A, and Wullschleger SD (2008) Connecting genes, coexpression modules, and molecular signatures to environmental stress phenotypes in plants. BMC Systems Biology 2:16

Wohlfahrt G, Fenstermaker LF, Arnone JA III (2008) Large annual net ecosystem CO2 uptake of a Mojave Desert ecosystem. Global Change Biology 14:1475-1487

Zakharov EV, Hellmann JJ (2008) Genetic differentiation across a latitudinal gradient in two co-occurring butterfly species: revealing population differences in a context of climate change. Molecular Ecology 17:189-208

Zavala JA, Casteel CL, DeLucia EH, Berenbaum MR (2008) Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense against invasive species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105:5129-5133

Zelikova TJ, Dunn RR, Sanders NJ (2008) Variation in seed dispersal [by ants] along an elevational gradient in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Acta Oecologica 34:155-162


Ainsworth EA, Rogers A (2007) The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [CO2]: mechanisms and environmental interactions. Plant, Cell and Environment 30:258-270

Awmack CS, Mondor EB, Lindroth RL (2007) Forest understory clover populations in enriched CO2 and O3 atmospheres: interspecific, intraspecific, and indirect effects. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59:340-346

Blackwood CB, Hudleston DE, Zak DR, Buyer JS (2007) Interpreting ecological diversity indices applied to T-RFLP data: insights from simulated microbial communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73:5276-5283

Bradley KL, Pregitzer KS (2007) Ecosystem assembly and terrestrial carbon balance under elevated CO2. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 22:538-547

Calfapietra C, Wiberley AE, Falbel TG, Linskey AR, Scarascia-Mugnozza G, Karnosky DF, Loreto F, Sharkey TD (2007) Isoprene synthase expression and protein levels are reduced under elevated C3 but not under elevated CO2 (FACE) in field-grown aspen trees. Plant, Cell and Environment 30:654-661

Chung H, Zak D, Reich PB, Ellsworth DS (2007) Plant species richness, elevated CO2, and atmospheric N deposition alter soil microbial community composition and function. Global Change Biology 13:980-989

Darbah JNT, Kubiske ME, Nelson N, Oksanen E, Vaapavuori E, Karnosky DF (2007) Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera): reproductive fitness. TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 7(S1):240-246

Darby BJ, Neher DA, Belnap J (2007) Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts. Applied Soil Ecology 35:203-212

Davis M, Reich PB, Knoll MBJ, Dooley L, Hundtoft M, Attleson I (2007) Elevated atmospheric CO2: a nurse plant substitute for oak seedlings establishing in old fields. Global Change Biology 13:2308-2316

DeLucia EH, Drake JE, Thomas RB, Gonzalez-Meler M (2007) Forest carbon use efficiency: is respiration a constant fraction of gross primary production? Global Change Biology 13:1157-1167

Dermody O, Weltzin JF, Engel EC, Allen P, Norby RJ (2007) How do elevated [CO2], warming, and reduced precipitation interact to affect soil moisture and LAI in an old field ecosystem? Plant and Soil 301:255-266

Dijkstra FA, West JB, Hobbie SE, Reich PB (2007) Dissolved inorganic and organic N leaching from a grassland field experiment: interactive effects of plant species richness, atmospheric [CO2] and N fertilization. Ecology 88:490-500

Finzi AC, Norby RJ, Calfapietra C, Gallet-Budynek A, Gielen B, Holmes WE, Hoosbeek MR, Iversen CM, Jackson RB, Kubiske ME, Ledford J, Liberloo M, Oren R, Polle A, Pritchard S, Zak DR, Schlesinger WH, Ceulemans R (2007) Increases in nitrogen uptake rather than nitrogen-use efficiency support higher rates of temperate forest productivity under elevated CO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104:14014-14019

Fortner AM, Weltzin JF (2007) Competitive hierarchy for four common old-field plant species depends on resource identity and availability. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134:166-176

Johnson DW, Todd DE Jr, Trettin CF, Sedinger JS (2007) Soil carbon and nitrogen changes in forests of walker branch watershed, 1972 to 2004 . Soil Science Society of America Journal 71: 1639-1646

Johnson RM, Pregitzer KS (2007) Concentration of sugars, phenolic acids, and amino acids in forest soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39:3159-3166

Junker BH, Lonien J, Heady EH, Rogers A, Schwender J (2007) Parallel determination of enzyme activities and in vivo fluxes in Brassica napus embryos grown on organic or inorganic nitrogen source. Phytochemistry 68:2232-2242

Karnosky DF, Skelly JM, Percy KE, Chappelka AH (2007) Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution on US forests. Environmental Pollution 147:489-506

Karnosky DF, Werner H, Holopainen T, Percy K, Oksanen T, Oksanen E, Heerdt C, Fabian P, Nagy J, Heilman W, Cox R, Nelson N, Matyssek R (2007) Free-air exposure systems to scale up ozone research to mature trees. Plant Biology 9:181-190

Knops JHM, Naeem S, Reich PB (2007) The impact of elevated CO2, increased nitrogen availability and biodiversity on plant tissue quality and decomposition. Global Change Biology 13:1960-1971

Kubiske ME, Quinn VS, Marquardt PE, Karnosky DF (2007) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and/or O3 on intra- and interspecific competitive ability of aspen. Plant Biology 9:342-355

Liu L, King JS, Giardina CP (2007) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 on nutrient dynamics: decomposition of leaf litter in trembling aspen and paper birch communities. Plant and Soil 299:65-82

Luyssaert S, Inglima I, Jung M, Richardson AD, Reichstein M, Papale D, Piao S, Schulze E-D, Wingate L, Matteucci G, Aragao L, Aubinet M, Beer C, Bernhofer C, Black KG, Bonal D, Bonnefond JM, Chambers J, Ciais P, Cook B, Davis KJ, Dolman AJ, Gielen B, Goulden M, Grace J, Granier A, Grelle A, Griffis T, Gr¸nwald T, Guidolotti G, Hanson PJ, Harding R, Hollinger D, Hutyra LR, Kolari P, Kruijt B, Kutsch W, Lagergren F, Laurila T, Law B, LeMaire G, Lindroth A, Loustau D, Malhi Y, Mateus J, Migliavacca M, Mission L, Montagnani L, Moncrieff J, Moors E, Munger JW, Nikinmaa E, Ollinger SV, Pita G, Rebmann C, Roupsard O, Saigusa N, Sanz MJ, Seufert G, Sierra C, Smith ML, Tang J, Valentini R, Vesala T, Janssens IA. (2007) CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database. Global Change Biology 13:2509-2537

Mao J, Wang B, Dai Y, Woodward FI, Hanson PJ, Lomas MR (2007) Improvements of a dynamic global vegetation model and simulations of carbon and water at an upland-oak forest. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 24:311-322

McLachlan JS, Hellmann JJ, Schwartz MW (2007) A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change. Conservation Biology 21:297-302

Meehan TD, Lindroth RL (2007) Modeling nitrogen flux by larval insect herbivores from a temperate hardwood forest. Oecologia 153:833-843

Monson RK, Trahan N, Rosenstiel TN, Veres P, Moore D, Wilkinson M, Norby RJ, Volder A, Tjoelker MG, Briske DD, Karnosky DF, Fall R (2007) Isoprene emission from terrestrial ecosystems in response to global change: minding the gap between models and observations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 365:1677-1695

Nadeau JA, Qualls RG, Nowak RS, Smith SD, Blank RR (2007) Responses of enzyme activities involved in C, N, and P mineralization to short intense precipitation events in the Mojave Desert. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 52:305-320

Norby RJ, Rustad LE, Dukes JS, Ojima DS, Parton WJ, Del Grosso SJ, McMurtrie RE, Pepper DA (2007) Ecosystem responses to warming and interacting global change factors. In: J Canadell, D Pataki, L Pitelka (eds) Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World. Springer-Verlag, New York, 23-36

Novotny AM, Schade JD, Hobbie SE, Kay AD, Kyle M, Reich PB, Elser JJ (2007) Stoichiometric response of nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing dicots to manipulations of CO2, nitrogen, and diversity. Oecologia 151:687-696

Percy KE, Karnosky DF (2007) Air quality in natural areas: interface between the public, science and regulation. Environmental Pollution 149:256-267

Percy KE, Nosal M, Heilman W, Dann T, Legge AH, Sober J, Karnosky DF (2007) New exposure-based metric approach for evaluating O3 risk to North American aspen forests. Environmental Pollution 147:554-566

Perkins TA, Holmes WR, Weltzin JF (2007) Multi-species interactions in competitive hierarchies: new methods and empirical test. Journal of Vegetation Science 18:685-692

Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Loya WM, King JS, Burton AJ (2007) The contribution of root systems to biogeochemical cycles in a changing world. In: Z Cardon, J Whitbeck (eds) The Rhizosphere -- An Ecological Perspective. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 155-178

Reich PB, Lusk C, Wright IJ (2007) Predicting leaf physiology from simple plant and climate attributes: a global GLOPNET analysis. Ecological Applications 17:1982-1988

Roberts BJ, Mulholland PJ, Hill WR (2007) Multiple scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates: results from 2 years of continuous monitoring in a forested headwater stream. Ecosystems 10:588-606

Schwartz E (2007) Characterization of growing microorganisms in soil through stable isotope probing with H2[18]O. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73:2541-2546

Schwartz E, Blazewicz S, Doucett R, Hungate BA, Hart SC, Dijkstra P (2007) Natural abundance 15N and 13C of DNA extracted from soil. Soil Biology and Biochemisty 39:3101-3107

Travers SE, Smith MD, Bai J, Hulbert SH, Leach JE, Schnable PS, Knapp AK, Milliken GA, Fay PA, Saleh A, Garrett KA (2007) Ecological genomics: making the leap from model systems in the lab to native populations in the field. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:19-24

Tubiello FN, Amthor JS, Boote KJ, Donatelli M, Easterling W, Fischer G, Gifford RM, Howden M, Reilly J, Rosenzweig C (2007) Crop response to elevated CO2 and world food supply. A comment on "Food for Thought..." by Long et al., Science 312:1918-1921, 2006. European Journal of Agronomy 26:215-223

Tyner ML, Classen AT (2007) Climate change effects on species composition mediates decomposition in an old-field ecosystem. Journal of Undergraduate Research 7:110-114

Wan S, Norby RJ, Ledford J, Weltzin JF (2007) Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability in a model old-field grassland. Global Change Biology 13:2411-2424

Yeager CM, Kornosky JL, Morgan RE, Cain EC, Garcia-Pichel F, Housman DC, Belnap J, Kuske CR (2007) Three distinct clades of cultured heterocystous cyanobacteria constitute the dominant N2-fixing members of biological soil crusts of the Colorado Plateau, USA. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 60:85-97

Zak DR, Holmes WE, Pregitzer KS (2007) Atmospheric CO2 and O3 alter the flow of 15-N in developing forest ecosystems. Ecology 88:2630-2639

Zak DR, Holmes WE, Pregitzer KS, King JS, Ellsworth DS, Kubiske ME (2007) Belowground competition and the response of developing forest communities to atmospheric CO2 and O3. Global Change Biology 13:2230-2238

Zakharov EV, Hellmann JJ (2007) Characterization of 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Anise swallowtail, Papilio zelicaon (Lepidoptera: Papilionidase), and their amplification in related species. Molecular Ecology Notes 7:144-146

Zakharov EV, Hellmann JJ, Romero-Severson J (2007) Microsatellite loci in the Propertius duskywing, Erynnis propertius (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), and related species. Molecular Ecology Notes 7:266-268

Ziska LH, George K, Frenz DA (2007) Establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in disturbed soil as a function of an urban--rural macro-environment. Global Change Biology 13:266-274


Bandeff JM, Pregitzer KS, Loya WM, Holmes WE, Zak DR (2006) Overstory community composition and elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 modify understory biomass production and nitrogen acquisition. Plant and Soil 282:251-259

Barker DH, Vanier C, Naumburg E, Charlet TN, Nielsen KM, Newingham BA, Smith SD (2006) Enhanced monsoon precipitation and N deposition affect leaf traits and photosynthesis differently in spring and summer in the desert shrub Larrea tridentata. New Phytologist 169:799-808

Belnap J, Phillips SL, Troxler TT (2006) Soil lichen and moss cover and species richness can be highly dynamic: the effects of invasion by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum, precipitation, and temperature on biological soil crusts in SE Utah. Applied Soil Ecology 32:63-76

Chung H, Zak DR, Lilleskov EA (2006) Fungal community composition and metabolism under elevated CO2 and O3. Oecologia 147:143-154

Darby BJ, Housman DC, Zaki AM, Shamout Y, Adl SM, Belnap J, Neher DA (2006) Effects of altered temperature and precipitation on desert protozoa associated with biological soil crusts. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 53:507-514

Dijkstra FA, Hobbie S, Reich P (2006) Soil processes affected by sixteen grassland species grown under different environmental conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:770-777

Grant RF, Zhang Y, Yuan F, Wang S, Hanson PJ, Gaumont-Guay D, Chen J, Black TA, Barr A, Baldocchi DD, Arain A (2006) Intercomparison of techniques to model water stress effects on CO2 and energy exchange in temperate and boreal deciduous forests. Ecological Modelling 196:289-312

Hartle RT, Fernandez GCJ, Nowak RS (2006) Horizontal and vertical zones of influence for root systems of four Mojave Desert shrubs. Journal of Arid Environments 64:586-603

Holmes WE, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, King JS (2006) Elevated CO2 and O3 alter soil nitrogen transformations beneath trembling aspen, paper birch, and sugar maple. Ecosystems 9:1354-1363

Housman DC, Powers HH, Collins AD, Belnap J (2006) Carbon and nitrogen fixation differ between successional stages of biological soil crusts in the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 66:620-634

Hughes-Martiny JB, Bohannan BJM, Brown JH, Colwell R, Fuhrman JA, Green J, Horner-Devine MC, Kane M, Krumins JA, Kuske CR, Morin P, Naeem S, Ovreas L, Reysenbach A, Smith V, Staley J (2006) Microbial biogeography: putting microbes on the map. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4:102-112

Karnosky DF, Pregitzer KS (2006) Impacts of elevated CO2 and O3 on northern temperate forest ecosystems: results from the Aspen FACE experiment. In: J Nosberger, SP Long, RJ Norby, M Stitt, GR Hendry, H Blum (eds) Managed Ecosystems and CO2: Case Studies, Processes, and Perspectives. Springer-Verlag, New York, 213-219

King AW, Gunderson CA, Post WM, Weston DJ, Wullschleger SD (2006) Plant respiration in a warmer world. Science 312:536-537

Kubiske ME, Quinn VS, Heilman WE, McDonald EP, Marquardt PE, Teclaw RM, Friend AL, Karnosky DF (2006) Interannual climatic variation mediates elevated CO2 and O3 effects on forest growth. Global Change Biology 12:1054-1068

Muntifering RB, Chappelka AH, Lin JC, Karnosky DF, Somer GL (2006) Chemical composition and digestibility of Trifolium exposed to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free-air (FACE) fumigation system. Functional Ecology 20:269-275

Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Hanson PJ, Gunderson CA, Tschaplinski TJ, Jastrow JD (2006) CO2 enrichment of a deciduous forest: the Oak Ridge sweetgum experiment. In: J Nosberger, SP Long, RJ Norby, M Stitt, GR Hendry, H Blum (eds) Managed Ecosystems and CO2: Case Studies, Processes, and Perspectives. Springer-Verlag, New York, 231-251

Pregitzer KS, Loya WM, Kubiske ME, Zak DR (2006) Soil respiration in northern forests exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone. Oecologia 148:503-516

Reich PB, Hobbie SE, Lee T, Ellsworth DS, West JB, Tilman D, Knops JMH, Naeem S, Trost J (2006) Nitrogen limitation constrains sustainability of ecosystem response to CO2. Nature 440:922-925

Reich PB, Hungate BA, Luo Y (2006) Carbon-nitrogen interactions in terrestrial ecosystems in response to rising atmospheric CO2. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37:611-636

Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Machado JL, Oleksyn J (2006) Universal scaling of respiratory metabolism, size and nitrogen in plants. Nature 439:457-461

Shipley B, Lechowicz MJ, Wright I, Reich PB (2006) Fundamental tradeoffs generating the worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Ecology 87:535-541

Strengbom J, Reich PB (2006) Elevated [CO2] and increased N supply reduce leaf disease and related photosynthetic impacts on Solidago rigida. Oecologia 149:519-525

Torn MS, Harte J (2006) Missing feedbacks, asymmetric uncertainties, and the underestimation of future warming. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L10703, doi:10.1029/2005GL025540

Vollmar AV, Gunderson CA (2006) Physiological adjustments of leaf respiration to atmospheric warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra. U.S. Department of Energy Journal of Undergraduate Research 6:44-46

Wayson CA, Randolph JC, Hanson PJ, Grimmond CSB, Schmid HP (2006) Comparison of soil respiration methods in a mid-latitude deciduous forest. Biogeochemistry 80:173-189

West JB, Hobbie SE, Reich PB (2006) Effects of plant species diversity, atmospheric [CO2], and N addition on gross rates of inorganic N release from soil organic matter. Global Change Biology 12:1400-1408

Wright IJ, Reich PB, Atkin OH, Lusk CH, Tjoelker MG, Westoby M (2006) Irradiance, temperature and rainfall influence leaf respiration in woody plants: evidence from comparisons across 20 sites. New Phytologist 169:309-319

Wright JP, Naeem S, Hector A, Lehman C, Reich PB, Schmid B, Tilman D (2006) Conventional functional classification schemes underestimate the relationship with ecosystem functioning. Ecology Letters 9:111-120

Wullschleger SD, Hanson PJ (2006) Sensitivity of canopy transpiration to altered precipitation in an upland oak forest: evidence from a long-term field manipulation study. Global Change Biology 12:97-109

Zak DR, Blackwood CB, Waldrop MP (2006) A molecular dawn for biogeochemistry. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 21:288-295


Agrell J, Kopper B, McDonald EP, Lindroth RL (2005) CO2 and O3 effects on host plant preferences of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria). Global Change Biology 11:588-599

Allen MF, Klironomos JN, Treseder KK, Oechel WC (2005) Responses of soil biota to elevated CO2 in a chaparral ecosystem. Ecological Applications 15:1701-1711

Allison VJ, Miller RM (2005) Soil grinding increases the relative abundance of eukaryotic phospholipid fatty acids. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69:423-426

Barker DH, Stark LR, Zimpfer JF, McLetchie ND, Smith SD (2005) Evidence of drought-induced stress on biotic crust moss in the Mojave Desert. Plant, Cell and Environment 28:939-947

Chapman JA, King JS, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR (2005) Effects of elevated CO2 and tropospheric O3 on tree fine root decomposition. Tree Physiology 25:1501-1510

DeLucia EH, Moore DJ, Hamilton JG, Thomas RB, Springer CJ, Norby RJ (2005) The changing role of forests in the global carbon cycle: responding to elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In: Lal R, Duxbury J, Steward BA, Hansen DO (eds) Climate Change and Global Food Security, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 179-214

Dijkstra F, Hobbie S, Reich P, Knops J (2005) Divergent effects of elevated CO2, N fertilization, and plant diversity on soil C and N dynamics in a grassland field experiment. Plant and Soil 272:41-52

Giardina CP, Coleman MD, Hancock JE, King JS, Lilleskov EA, Loya WM, Pregitzer KS, Ryan MG, Trettin CC (2005) The response of belowground carbon allocation in forests to global change. In: D Binkley, O Menyailo (eds) Tree Species Effects on Soils: Implications for Global Change. NATO Science Seris/Kluwer, Dordrecht, 119-154

Graham JH, Miller RM (2005) Mycorrhizas: gene to function. Plant and Soil 274:79-100

Gupta P, Duplessis S, White H, Karnosky DF, Martin F, Podila GK (2005) Gene expression patterns of trembling aspen trees following long-term exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and tropospheric O3. New Phytologist 167:129-142

Hanson PJ, Wullschleger SD, Norby RJ, Tschaplinski TJ, Gunderson CA (2005) Importance of changing CO2, temperature, precipitation, and ozone on carbon and water cycles of an upland-oak forest: incorporating experimental results into model simulations. Global Change Biology 11:1402-1423

Karberg NJ, Pregitzer KS, King JS, Friend AL, Wood JR (2005) Soil carbon dioxide partial pressure and dissolved inorganic carbonate chemistry under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone. Oecologia 142:296-306

Karnosky DF (2005) Ozone effects on forest ecosystems under a changing global environment. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 60:353-358

Karnosky DF, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Kubiske ME, Hendrey GR, Weinstein D, Nosal M, Percy KE (2005) Scaling ozone responses of forest trees to the ecosystem level in a changing climate. Plant, Cell and Environment 28:965-981

King JS, Kubiske ME, Pregitzer KS, Hendrey GR, McDonald EP, Giardina CP, Quinn VS, Karnosky DF (2005) Tropospheric O3 compromises net primary production in young stands of trembling aspen, paper birch and sugar maple in response to elevated atmospheric CO2. New Phytologist 168:623-635

King JS, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Holmes WE, Schmidt K (2005) Fine root chemistry and decomposition in model communities of north-temperate tree species show little response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying soil resource availability. Oecologia 146:318-328

Klironomos JN, Allen MF, Rillig MC, Piotrowski J, Makvandi-Nejad S, Wolfe BE, Powell JR (2005) Abrupt rise in atmospheric CO2 overestimates community response in a model plant--soil system. Nature 433:621-624

Lindroth RL, Dearing MD (2005) Herbivory in a world of elevated CO2. In: JR Ehleringer, TE Cerling, MD Dearing (eds) A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effect on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. Springer, New York, 468-486

Liu L, King JS, Giardina CP (2005) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 on leaf litter production and chemistry in trembling aspen and paper birch ecosystems. Tree Physiology 15:1511-1522

Majdi H, Pregitzer K, Moren A-S, Agren GI (2005) Fine root turnover in forest ecosystems. Plant and Soil 276:1-8

Mankovska B, Percy K, Karnosky DF (2005) Impacts of greenhouse gases on epicuticular waxes of Populus tremuloides Michx.: results from an open-air exposure and a natural O3 gradient. Environmental Pollution 137:580-586

Mattson WJ, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Herms DA (2005) CO2 enrichment and carbon partitioning to phenolics: do plant responses accord better with the protein competition of the growth-differentiation balance models? Oikos 111:337-347

Miller RM (2005) The nonmycorrhizal root -- a strategy for survival in nutrient-impoverished soils. New Phytologist 165:665-668

Mondor EB, Tremblay MN, Awmack CS, Lindroth RL (2005) Altered genotypic and phenotypic frequencies of aphid populations under enriched CO2 and O3 atmospheres. Global Change Biology 11:1990-1996

Norby RJ, DeLucia EH, Gielen B, Calfapietra C, Giardina CP, King JS, Ledford J, McCarthy HR, Moore DJP, Ceulemans R, De Angelis P, Finzi AC, Karnosky DF, Kubiske ME, Lukac M, Pregitzer KS, Scarascia-Mugnozza GE, Schlesinger WH, Oren R (2005) Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:18052-18056

Pregitzer KS, King JS (2005) Effects of soil temperature on nutrient uptake. In: H BassiriRad (ed) Nutrient acquisition by plants, an ecological perspective. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 277-310

Tjoelker MG, Craine JM, Wedin D, Reich PB, Tilman D (2005) Linking leaf and root trait syndromes among 39 grassland and savannah species. New Phytologist 167:493-508

West JB, McAlister K, HilleRisLambers J, Lee TD, Hobbie SE, Reich PB (2005) Legume species identity and soil nitrogen supply determine symbiotic nitrogen-fixation responses to elevated atmospheric [CO2]. New Phytologist 167:523-530

Wright IJ, Reich PB, Cornelissen JHC, Falster DS, Garnier E, Hikosaka K, Lamont BB, Lee W, Oleksyn J, Osada N, Poorter H, Villar R, Warton DI, Westoby M (2005) Assessing the generality of global leaf trait relationships. New Phytologist 166:485-496

Wright IJ, Reich PB, Cornelissen JHC, Falster DS, Groom PK, Hikosaka K, Lee W, Lusk CH, Niinemets U, Oleksyn J, Osada N, Poorter H, Warton DI, Westoby M (2005) Modulation of leaf economic traits and trait relationships by climate. Global Ecology & Biogeography 14:411-421

Wythers KR, Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Bolstad PB (2005) Foliar respiration acclimation to temperature and temperature variable Q10 alter ecosystem carbon balance. Global Change Biology 11:435-449

Yeager CM, Northup DE, Grow CC, Barns SM, Kuske CR (2005) Changes in nitrogen-fixing and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in soil of a mixed conifer forest after wildfire. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:2713-2722


Allison VJ, Miller RM (2004) Using fatty acids to quantify arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In: G Podila, A Varma (eds) Mycorrhizae: Basic Research and Applications. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 141-161

Awmack CS, Harrington R, Lindroth RL (2004) Individual performance does not predict aphid population responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 or O3. Global Change Biology 10:1414-1423

Clark DA (2004) Sources or sinks? The responses of tropical forests to current and future climate and atmospheric composition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 359:477-491

Davey PA, Hunt S, Hymus GJ, DeLucia EH, Drake BG, Karnosky DF, Long SP (2004) Respiratory oxygen uptake is not decreased by an instantaneous elevation of [CO2], but is increased with long-term growth in the field at elevated [CO2]. Plant Physiology 134:520-527

DeAngelis DL, Mulholland PJ (2004) Dynamic consequences of allochthonous nutrient input to freshwater systems. In: GA Polis, ME Power, GR Huxel (eds) Food Webs at the Landscape Level. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 12-24

Dijkstra F, Hobbie S, Reich P, Knops J (2004) Nitrogen deposition and plant species interact to influence soil carbon stabilization. Ecology Letters 7:1192-1198

Donaldson JR, Lindroth RL (2004) Cottonwood leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) performance in relation to variable phytochemistry in juvenile aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Environmental Entomology 33:1505-1511

Ellsworth DS, Reich PB, Naumburg ES, Koch GW, Kubiske ME, Smith SD (2004) Photosynthesis, carboxylation and leaf nitrogen responses of 16 species to elevated pCO2 across four free-air CO2 enrichment experiments in forest, grassland and desert. Global Change Biology 10:2121-2138

Hanson PJ, Amthor JS, Wullschleger SD, Wilson KB, Grant RF, Hartley A, Hui D, Hunt ER Jr, Johnson DW, Kimball JS, King AW, Luo Y, McNulty SG, Sun G, Thornton PE, Wang SS, Williams M, Baldocchi DD, Cushman RM (2004) Carbon and water cycle simulations for an upland oak forest using 13 stand-level models: intermodel comparisons and evaluations against independent measurements. Ecological Monographs 74:443-489

Kaakinen S, Kostiainen KI, Ek F, Saranpää P, Kubiske ME, Sober J , Karnosky DF, Vapaavuori E (2004) Stem wood properties of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum saplings after 3 years of treatments to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone. Global Change Biology 10:1513-1525

Karnosky DF, Thakur RC (2004) Genetic aspects of air pollution and climate change. In: J Burley, J Evans, J Youngquist (eds) Genetics and Genetic Resources, Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences. Academic Press, London, 223-229

King JS, Hanson PJ, Bernhardt E, DeAngelis P, Norby RJ, Pregitzer KS (2004) A multi-year synthesis of soil respiration responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 from four forest FACE experiments. Global Change Biology 10:1027-1042

Loranger GI, Pregitzer KS, King JS (2004) Elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations differently affect selected groups of fauna in temperate forest soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 36:1521-1524

Luo Y, Su B, Currie WS, Dukes JS, Finzi A, Hartwig U, Hungate B, McMurtrie R, Oren R, Parton WJ, Pataki D, Shaw R, Zak DR, Field C (2004) Progressive nitrogen limitation of ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric CO2. BioScience 54:731-739

Mattson WJ, Kuokkanen K, Niemela P, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Kellomaki S, Tahvanainen J (2004) Elevated CO2 alters birch resistance to lagomorpha herbivores. Global Change Biology 10:1402-1413

Mondor EB, Tremblay MN, Awmack CS, Lindroth RL (2004) Divergent pheromone-mediated insect behaviour under global atmospheric change. Global Change Biology 10:1820-1824

Mondor EB, Tremblay MN, Lindroth RL (2004) Transgenerational phenotypic plasticity under future atmospheric conditions. Ecology Letters 7:127-134

Mulholland PJ (2004) The importance of in-stream uptake for regulating stream concentrations and outputs of N and P from a forested watershed: evidence from long-term chemistry records for Walker Branch Watershed. Biogeochemistry 70:403-426

Norby RJ, Luo Y (2004) Evaluating ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric CO2 and global warming in a multi-factor world. New Phytologist 162:281-294

Parsons WFJ, Lindroth RL, Bockheim JG (2004) Decomposition of Betula papyrifera leaf litter under the independent and interactive effects of elevated CO2 and O3. Global Change Biology 10:1666-1677

Pendall E, Bridgham S, Hanson PJ, Hungate B, Kicklighter DW, Johnson DW, Law BE, Luo Y, Megonigal JP, Olsrud M, Ryan MG, Thornton P, Wan S (2004) Below-ground process responses to elevated CO2 and temperature: a discussion of observations, measurement methods, and models. New Phytologist 162:311-322

Pregitzer KS, Euskirchen ES (2004) Carbon cycling and storage in world forests: biome patterns related to forest age. Global Change Biology 10:2052-2077

Reich PB, Tilman D, Naeem S, Ellsworth DS, Knops J, Craine J, Wedin D, Trost J (2004) Species and functional group diversity independently influence biomass accumulation and its response to CO2 and N. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101:10101-10106

Sholtis JD, Gunderson CA, Norby RJ, Tissue DT (2004) Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated CO2 in a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) stand. New Phytologist 162:343-354

Singsaas EL, Ort DR, DeLucia EH (2004) Elevated CO2 effects on mesophyll conductance and its consequences for interpreting photosynthetic physiology. Plant, Cell and Environment 27:41-50

Whitman TG, Young WP, Martinsen GD, Gehring CA, Schweitzer JA, Shuster SM, Wimp GM, Fischer DG, Bailey JK, Lindroth RL, Woolbright S, Kuske CR (2003) Community and ecosystem genetics: a consequence of the extended phenotype. Ecology 84:559-573

Wilcox CS, Ferguson JW, Fernandez GCJ, Nowak RS (2004) Fine root growth dynamics of four Mojave Desert shrubs as related to soil moisture and microsite. Journal of Arid Environments 56:129-148

Wright I, Reich PB, Westoby M, and GLOPNET researchers (2004) The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature 428:821-827

Yeager CM, Kornosky JL, Housman DC, Grote EE, Belnap J, Kuske CR (2004) Diazotrophic community structure and function in two successional stages of biological soil crusts from the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70:973-983

Ziska LH, Bunce JA, Goins EW (2004) Characterization of an urban-rural CO2/temperature gradient and associated changes in initial plant productivity during secondary succession. Oecologia 139:454-458


Amthor JS (2003) Efficiency of lignin biosynthesis: a quantitative analysis. Annals of Botany 91:673-695

Bassirirad H, Constable JVH, Lussenhop J, Kimball BA, Norby RJ, Oechel WC, Reich PB, Schlesinger WH, Zitzer S, Sehtiya HL, Salim S (2003) Widespread foliage delta-15-N depletion under elevated CO2: inferences for the nitrogen cycle. Global Change Biology 9:1-9

Clark JS, Mohan J, Dietze M, Ibanez I (2003) Coexistence: how to identify trophic trade-offs. Ecology 84:17-31

Cornelissen JHC, Lavorel S, Garnier E, Diaz S, Buchmann N, Gurvich DE, Reich PB, ter Steege H, Morgan HD, van der Heijden MGA, Pausas JG, Poorter H (2003) A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51:335-380

Craine JM, Wedin DA, Chapin FS III, Reich PB (2003) The dependence of root system properties on root system biomass of 10 North American grassland species. Plant and Soil 250:39-47

Craine JM, Reich PB, Tilman GD, Ellsworth D, Fargione J, Knops J, Naeem S (2003) The role of plant species in biomass production and response to elevated CO2 and N. Ecology Letters 6:623-630

Craine JM, Bond W, Lee W, Reich PB, Ollinger S (2003) The resource econommics of chemical and structural defenses across nitrogen supply gradients. Oecologia 137:547-556

Crocker TL, Hendrick RL, Ruess RW, Pregitzer KS, Burton AJ, Allen MF, Shan J, Morris LA (2003) Substituting root numbers for length: improving the use of minirhizotrons to study fine root dynamics. Applied Soil Ecology 23:127-135

Edwards NT, Riggs JS (2003) Automated monitoring of soil respiration: a moving chamber design. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67:1266-1271

George K, Norby RJ, Hamilton JG, DeLucia EH (2003) Fine-root respiration in a loblolly pine and sweetgum forest growing in elevated CO2. New Phytologist 160:511-522

Hanson PJ, Todd DE, Johnson DW, Joslin JD (2003) Responses of eastern deciduous forests to precipitation change. In: GR McPherson, JF Weltzin (eds) Changing Precipitation Regimes and Terrestrial Ecosystems. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 164-179

Holmes WE, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, King JS (2003) Nitrogen cycling beneath Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum growing under elevated CO2 and O3. Global Change Biology 9:1743-1750.

Holton MK, Lindroth RL, Nordheim EV (2003) Foliar quality influences tree-herbivor-parasitoid interactions: effects of elevated CO2, O3, and plant genotype. Oecologia 137:233-244

Jones JB Jr, Stanley EH, Mulholland PJ (2003) Long-term decline in carbon dioxide supersaturation in rivers across the contiguous United States. Geophysical Research Letters 30:1495-1499

Karnosky DF (2003) Impacts of elevated CO2 on forest trees and forest ecosystems: Knowledge gaps. Environmental International 29:161-169

Karnosky DF, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Awmack CS, Bockheim JG, Dickson RE, Hendrey GR, Host GE, King JS, Kopper BJ, Kruger EL, Kubiske ME, Lindroth RL, Mattson WJ, McDonald EP, Noormets A, Oksanen E, Parsons WFJ, Percy KE, Podila GK, Riemenschneider DE, Sharma P, Thakur R, Sober A, Sober J, Jones WS, Anttonen S, Vapaavuori E, Mankovska B, Heilman W, Isebrands JG (2003) Tropospheric O3 moderates responses of temperate hardwood forests to elevated CO2: a synthesis of molecular to ecosystem results from the Aspen FACE project. Functional Ecology 17:289-304

Kubiske ME, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Takeuchi Y (2003) Photosynthetic acclimation of overstory Populus tremuloides and understory Acer saccharum to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: interactions with shade and soil nitrogen. Tree Physiology 22:321-329

Kuske CR, Ticknor LO, Busch JD, Gehring CA, Whitham TG (2003) The pinyon rhizosphere, plant stress, and herbivory affect the abundance of microbial decomposers in soils. Microbial Ecology 45:340-352

Lee TD, Reich PB, Tjoelker MG (2003) Legume presence increases photosynthesis and N concentrations of co-occurring non-fixers but does not modulate their responsiveness to carbon dioxide enrichment. Oecologia 137:22-31

Lee TD, Tjoelker MG, Reich PB, Russelle MP (2003) Contrasting growth response of an N2-fixing and non-fixing forb to elevated CO2: dependence on soil N supply. Plant and Soil 255:475-486

Link SO, Smith JL, HalvorsonJJ, Bolton H (2003) A reciprocal transplant experiment within a climatic gradient in a semiarid shrub-steppe ecosystem: effects on bunchgrass growth and reproduction, soil carbon, and soil nitrogen. Global Change Biology 9:1097-1105

Loescher HW, Oberbauer SF, Gholz HL, Clark DB (2003) Environmental controls on net ecosystem-level carbon exchange and productivity in a Central American tropical wet forest. Global Change Biology 9:396-412

Loya WM, Pregitzer KS, Karberg NJ, King JS, Giardina CP (2003) Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels. Nature 425:705-707

Mitchell CE, Reich PB, Tilman D, Groth JV (2003) Effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease. Global Change Biology 9:438-451

Mulholland PJ (2003) Large scale patterns in DOC concentration, flux, and sources. In: S Findlay (ed) Aquatic Ecosystems: Interactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter. Academic Press, San Diego, 139-159

Norby RJ, Sholtis JD, Gunderson CA, Jawdy SS (2003) Leaf dynamics of a deciduous forest canopy: no response to elevated CO2. Oecologia 136:574-584

Oksanen E, Häikiö, E, Sober J, Karnosky DF (2003) Ozone-induced H2O accumulation in field-grown aspen and birch is linked to foliar ultrastructure and peroxisomal activity. New Phytologist 161:791-799

O'Neill EG, Johnson DW, Ledford J, Todd DE (2003) Acute seasonal drought does not permanently alter mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during decomposition of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) litter. Global Change Biology 9:117-123

Parsons WFJ, Kopper BJ, Lindroth RL (2003) Altered growth and fine root chemistry of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum under elevated CO2. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33:842-846

Pregitzer KS (2003) Carbon cycling in forest ecosystems with an emphasis on belowground processes. In: JM Kimble, LS Heath, RA Birdsey (eds) The Potential of U.S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 93-107

Reich PB, Tjoelker M, Buschena C, Knops J, Wrage K, Machado J, Tilman D (2003) Variation in growth rate and ecophysiology among 34 grassland and savanna species under contrasting N supply: a test of functional group differences. New Phytologist 157:617-631

Reich PB, Wright IJ, Cavender-Bares J, Craine JM, Oleksyn J, Westoby M, Walters MB (2003) The evolution of plant functional variation: traits, spectra, and strategies. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164:S143-S164

Pregitzer KS (2003) Woody plants, carbon allocation and fine roots. New Phytologist 158:421-423

Schwendenmann L, Veldkamp E, Brenes T, O'Brien JJ, Mackensen J (2003) Spatial and temporal variation in soil CO2 efflux in an old-growth neotropical rain forest, La Selva, Costa Rica. Biogeochemistry 64:111-128

Sharma P, Sober A, Sober J, Podila GK, Kubiske ME, Mattson WJ, Isebrands JG, Karnosky DF (2003) Moderation of [CO2]-induced gas exchange responses by elevated tropospheric O3 in trembling aspen and sugar maple. Ekologia 22 (Supplement 1):304-317

Theseira GW, Host GE, Isebrands JG, Whisler FD (2003) SOILPSI: a potential-driven three-dimensional soil water redistribution model--description and comparative evaluation. Environmental Software and Modeling 18:13-23

Treseder KK, Egerton-Warburton LM, Allen MF, Cheng YF, Oechel WC (2003) Alteration of soil carbon pools and communities of mycorrhizal fungi in chaparral exposed to elevated carbon dioxide. Ecosystems 6:786-796

Weltzin JF, Loik MF, Schwinning S, Williams DG, Fay PA, Haddad BM, Harte J, Huxman TE, Knapp AK, Lin G, Pockman WT, Shaw MR, Small EE, Smith MD, Smith SS, Tissue DT, Zak JC (2003) Assessing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to potential changes in precipitation. BioScience 53:941-952

Whitham TG, Young, Martinsen GD, Gehring CA, Schweitzer JA, Shuster SM, Wimp GM, Fischer DG, Bailey JK, Lindroth RL, Woolbright S, Kuske CR (2003) Community genetics: a consequence of the extended phenotype. Ecology 84:559-573

Wolf J, Johnson NC, Rowland DL, Reich PB (2003) Elevated CO2 and plant species richness impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore communities. New Phytologist 157:579-588

Zak DR, Holmes WE, Finzi AC, Norby RJ, Schlesinger WH (2003) Soil nitrogen cycling under elevated CO2: a synthesis of forest FACE experiments. Ecological Applications 13:1051-1061

Zhu Y-G, Miller RM (2003) Carbon cycling by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil--plant systems. TRENDS in Plant Science 8:407-409


Bloom AJ, Smart DR, Nguyen DT, Searles PS (2002) Nitrogen assimilation and growth of wheat under elevated carbon dioxide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 99:1730-1735

Clark DA (2002) Are tropical forests an important carbon sink? Reanalysis of the long-term plot data. Ecological Applications 12:3-7

Clark DB, Clark DA, Brown S, Oberbauer SF, Veldkamp E (2002) Stocks and flows of coarse woody debris across a tropical rain forest nutrient and topography gradient. Forest Ecology and Management 164:237-248

Craine JM, Wedin FS, Chapin FS III, Reich PB (2002) Relationship between the structure of root systems and resource use for 11 North American grassland plants. Plant Ecology 165:85-100

Curtis PS, Hanson PJ, Bolstad P, Barford C, Randolph JC, Schmid HP, Wilson KB (2002) Biometric and eddy-covariance based estimates of annual carbon storage in five eastern North American deciduous forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113:3-19

Davidson EA, Savage K, Bolstad P, Clark DA, Curtis PS, Ellsworth DS, Hanson PJ, Law BE, Luo Y, Pregitzer KS, Randolph JC, Zak D (2002) Belowground carbon allocation in forests estimated from litterfall and IRGA-based soil respiration measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113:39-51

Drake JB, Dubayah RO, Knox RG, Clark DB, Blair JB (2002) Sensitivity of large-footprint lidar to canopy structure and biomass in a neotropical rainforest. Remote Sensing of Environment 81:378-392

Drake JB, Dubayah RO, Clark DB, Knox RG, Blair JB, Hofton MA, Chazdon RL, Weishampel JF, Prince SD (2002) Estimation of tropical forest structural characteristics using large-footprint lidar. Remote Sensing of Environment 79:305-319

Dunbar J, Barns SM, Ticknor LO, Kuske CR (2002) Empirical and theoretical bacterial diversity in four Arizona soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68:3035-3045

Ehman JL, Schmid HP, Grimmond CSB, Randolph JC, Hanson PJ, Wayson CA, Cropley FD (2002) An initial intercomparison of micrometeorological and ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchange in a mid-latitude deciduous forest. Global Change Biology 8:575-589, 1164

Galloway J, Cowling E (editors) (2002) Special issue: Optimizing nitrogen management in food and energy productions, and environmental change. Ambio vol 21, number 2

Gebre GM, Tschaplinski TJ (2002) Solute accumulation of chestnut oak and dogwood leaves in response to throughfall manipulation of an upland oak forest. Tree Physiology 22:251-260

Gunderson CA, Sholtis JD, Wullschleger SD, Tissue DT, Hanson PJ, Norby RJ (2002) Environmental and stomatal control of photosynthetic enhancement in the canopy of a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantation during three years of CO2 enrichment. Plant, Cell and Environment 25:379-393

Hamilton JG, DeLucia EH, George K, Naidu SL, Finzi AC, Schlesinger WH (2002) Forest carbon balance under elevated CO2. Oecologia 131:250-260

Huston MA (2002) Critical issues for improving predictions. In: JM Scott, PJ Heglund, ML Morrison et al. (eds) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Scale and Accuracy. Island Press, Washington DC, 7-21

Huston MA, McBride AC (2002) Evaluating the relative strengths of biotic versus abiotic controls on ecosystem processes. In M Loreau, S Naeem, P Inchausti (eds) Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Synthesis and Perspectives. Oxford University Press, 47-60

Johnson DW, Hanson PJ, Todd DE Jr (2002) The effects of throughfall manipulation on soil leaching in a deciduous forest. Journal of Environmental Quality 31:204-216

Karnosky DF, Percy KE, Xiang B, Callan B, Noormets A, Mankovska B, Hopkin A, Sober J, Jones W, Dickson RE, Isebrands JG (2002) Interacting elevated CO2 and tropospheric O3 predisposes aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) to infection by rust (Melampsora medusae f. sp. tremuloidae). Global Change Biology 8:329-338

Kubiske ME, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Takeuchi Y (2002) Three years of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated amospheric CO2: overstory Populus tremuloides and understory Acer saccharum: interactions with shade and soil nitrogen. Tree Physiology 22:321-329

Kuske CR, Ticknor LO, Miller ME, Dunbar JM, Davis JA, Barns SM, Belnap J (2002) Comparison of soil bacterial communities in rhizospheres of three plant species and the interspace in an arid grassland. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68:1854-1863

Larson JL, Zak DR, Sinsabaugh RL (2002) Microbial activity beneath temperate trees growing under elevated CO2 and O3. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66:1848-1856

Loescher HW, Oberbauer SF, Powers JS, Hiremath AJ (2002) Spatial variation of throughfall volume in an old-growth tropical wet forest, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 18:397-407

McDonald EP, Kruger EL, Riemenschneider DE, Isebrands JG (2002) Competitive status influences tree-growth responses to elevated CO2 and O3 in aggrading aspen stands. Functional Ecology 16:792-801

Miller RM, Miller SP, Jastrow JD, Rivetta CB (2002) Mycorrhizal mediated feedbacks influence net carbon gain and nutrient uptake in Andropogon gerardii. New Phytologist 155:149-162

Percy KE, Awmack CS, Lindroth RL, Kubiske ME, Kopper BJ, Isebrands JG, Pregitzer KS, Hendrey GR, Dickson RE, Zak DR, Oksanen E, Sober J, Harrington R, Karnosky DF (2002) Altered performance of forest pests under CO2- and O3-enriched atmosphere. Nature 420:403-407

Phillips RL, Zak DR, Holmes WE, White DC (2002) Microbial community composition and function beneath temperate trees exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone. Oecologia 131:236-244

Pregitzer KS (2002) Fine roots of trees -- a new perspective. New Phytologist 154:267-273

Redfield E, Barns SM, Belnap J, Daane L, Kuske CR (2002) Comparative diversity and composition of cyanobacteria in three predominant soil crusts of the Colorado Plateau. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 40:55-63

Reich PB (2002) Root-shoot relationships: optimality in acclimation and allocation or the "Emperor's New Clothes"? In: Y Waisel, A Eshel, U Kafkafi (eds) Plant Roots: The Hidden Half. Marcel Dekker, New York, 205-220

Rillig MC, Treseder KK, Allen MF (2002) Global change and mycorrhizal fungi. In: M van der Heijden, I Sanders (eds) Mycorrhizal Ecology. Springer-Verlag, NY, 135-160

Rustad LE, Norby RJ (2002) Temperature increase: effects on terrestrial ecosystems. In: HA Mooney, JG Canadell (eds) Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, Volume 2, The Earth System: Biological and Ecological Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Wiley, Chichester, 575-581

Smith JL, Halvorson JJ, Bolton H (2002) Soil properties and microbial activity across a 500 m elevation gradient in a semi-arid environment. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34:1749-1757

Tissue DT, Lewis JD, Wullschleger SD, Amthor JS, Griffin KL, Anderson OR (2002) Leaf respiration in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) at different canopy positions grown in ambient and elevated CO2 in the field. Tree Physiology 22:1157-1166

Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Hanson PJ, Wilson KB, Norby RJ (2002) Sensitivity of stomatal and canopy conductance to elevated CO2--Interacting variables and perspectives of scale. New Phytologist 153:485-496

Zhang H, Lindberg SE (2002) Trends in dissolved gaseous mercury in the Tahquamenon River watershed and nearshore waters of Whitefish Bay in the Michigan Upper Peninsula. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 133:381-391


Allen MF (2001) Modeling arbuscular mycorrhizal infection: is % infection an appropriate variable? Mycorrhiza 10:255-258

Amthor JS (2001) Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat yield: review of results from experiments using various approaches to control CO2 concentration. Field Crops Research 37:1-34

Amthor JS, Baldocchi DD (2001) Terrestrial higher plant respiration and net primary production. In: J Roy, B Saugier, HA Mooney (eds) Terrestrial Global Productivity. Academic Press, San Diego, 33-59

Amthor JS, Koch GW, Willms JR, Layzell DB (2001) Leaf O2 uptake in the dark is independent of coincident CO2 partial pressure. Journal of Experimental Botany 52:2235-2238

Amthor JS, Chen JM, Clein JS, Frolking SE, Goulden ML, Grant RF, Kimball JS, King AW, McGuire AD, Nikolov NT, Potter CS, Wang S, Wofsy SC (2001) Boreal forest CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration predicted by nine ecosystem process models: intermodel comparisons and relationships to field measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:33,623-33,648

Bugmann HKM, Wullschleger SD, Price DT, Ogle K, Clark DF, Solomon AM (2001) Comparing the performance of forest gap models in North America. Climatic Change 51:349-388

Clark DA, Brown S, Kicklighter D, Chambers J, Thomlinson JR, Ni J (2001) Measuring net primary production in forests: concepts and field methods. Ecological Applications 11:356-370

Clark DA, Brown S, Kicklighter D, Chambers J, Thomlinson JR, Ni J, Holland EA (2001) NPP in tropical forests: an evaluation and synthesis of existing field data. Ecological Applications 11:371-384

Craine JM, Reich PB (2001) Elevated CO2 and nitrogen supply alter leaf longevity of grassland species. New Phytologist 150:397-403

Craine JM, Wedin DA, Reich PB (2001) Grassland species effects on soil CO2 flux track the effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen. New Phytologist 150:425-434

Craine JM, Wedin DA, Reich PB (2001) The response of soil CO2 flux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply, and plant diversity. Global Change Biology 7:947-953

Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP, Ayres MP, Flannigan MD, Hanson PJ, Irland LC, Lugo AE, Peterson CJ, Simberloff D, Swanson FJ, Stocks BJ, Wotton BM (2001) Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience 51:723-734

Dickson RE, Coleman MD, Pechter P, Karnosky DF (2001) Growth and crown architecture of two aspen genotypes exposed to interacting ozone and carbon dioxide. Environmental Pollution 115:319-334

Dunbar J, Ticknor LO, Kuske CR (2001) Phylogenetic specificity, reproducibility, and a new method for analysis of 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment profiles of bacterial communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67:190-197

Finzi AC, Allen AS, DeLucia EH, Ellsworth DS, Schlesinger WH (2001) Forest litter production, chemistry, and decomposition following two years of free-air CO2 enrichment. Ecology 82:470-484

Griffin KL, Anderson OR, Gastrich MD, Lewis JD, Lin G, Schuster W, Seemann J, Tissue DT, Turnbull MT, Whitehead D (2001) Plant growth in elevated CO2 alters mitochondrial number and chloroplast fine structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98:2473-2478

Hamilton JG, Thomas RB, DeLucia EH (2001) Direct and indirect effects of elevated CO2 on leaf respiration in a forest ecosystem. Plant, Cell and Environment 24:975-982

Hamilton JG, Zangerl AR, DeLucia EH, Berenbaum MR (2001) The carbon nutrient balance hypothesis (CNB): its rise and fall. Ecology Letters 4:86-95

Hansen AJ, Neilson RP, Dale VH, Flather CH, Iverson LR, Currie DJ, Shafer S, Cook R, Bartlein PJ (2001) Global change in forests: responses of species, communities, and biomes. BioScience 51:765-779

Hanson PJ, Todd DE Jr, Amthor JS (2001) A six-year study of sapling and large-tree growth and mortality responses to natural and induced variability in precipitation and throughfall. Tree Physiology 21:345-358

Hartz-Rubin JS, DeLucia EH (2001) Canopy development of a model herbaceous community exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 and soil nutrients. Physiologia Plantarum 113:258-266

Herrick JD, Thomas RB (2001) No photosynthetic acclimation in sweetgum trees (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) after three years of CO2 enrichment. Plant, Cell and Environment 24:53-64

Hill WR, Mulholland PJ, Marzolf ER (2001) Stream ecosystem responses to forest leaf emergence in spring. Ecology 82:2306-2319

Isebrands JG, McDonald EP, Kruger E, Hendrey G, Pregitzer K, Percy K, Sober J, Karnosky DF (2001) Growth responses of Populus tremuloides clones to interacting carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone. Environmental Pollution 115:359-371

Johnson TB, Auge; RM, Green CD, Stodola AJW, Olinick JB, Saxton AM (2001) Correlations of stomatal conductance with hydraulic, chemical and environmental variables in five urban tree species. Scientia Horticulturae 90:305-320

Joslin JD, Wolfe MH, Hanson PJ (2001) Factors controlling the timing of root elongation intensity in a mature upland oak stand. Plant and Soil 228:201-212

Joyce LA, Aber J, McNulty S, Dale V, Hansen AJ, Irland L, Neilson RP, Skog K (2001) Potential consequences of climate variability and change for the forests of the United States. In: National Assessment Synthesis Team (eds) Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), 489-522

King JS, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Kubiske ME, Holmes WE (2001) Correlation of foliage and litter chemistry of sugar maple, Acer saccharum, as affected by elevated CO2 and varying N availability, and effects on decomposition. Oikos 94:403-416

King JS, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Kubiske ME, Ashby JA, Holmes WE (2001) Chemistry and decomposition of litter from Populus tremuloides Michaux grown at elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying N availability. Global Change Biology 7:65-74

King JS, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Sober J, Isebrands JG, Dickson RE, Hendrey GR, Karnosky DF (2001) Fine-root biomass and fluxes of soil carbon in young stands of paper birch and trembling aspen as affected by elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3. Oecologia 128:237-250

LaDeau SL, Clark JS (2001) Rising CO2 levels and the fecundity of forest trees. Science 292:95-98

Lee TD, Tjoelker MG, Ellsworth DS, Reich PB (2001) Leaf gas exchange responses of 13 prairie grassland species to elevated CO2 and increased nitrogen supply. New Phytologist 150:405-418

Lindroth RL, Kopper BJ, Parsons WFJ, Bockheim JG, Karnosky DF, Hendrey GR, Pregitzer KS, Isebrands JG, Sober J (2001) Consequences of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone for foliar chemical composition and dynamics in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Environmental Pollution 115:395-405

Loreau M, Naeem S, Inchausti P, Bengtsson J, Grime JP, Hector A, Hooper DU, Huston MA, Raffaelli D, Schmid B, Tilman D, Wardle DA (2001) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: current knowledge and future challenges. Science 294:804-808

Martin LA, Mulholland PJ, Webster JR, Valett HM (2001) Denitrification potential in sediments of headwater streams in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20:505-519

Martin MJ, Host GE, Lenz KE, Isebrands JG (2001) Simulating the growth response of aspen to ozone exposure: a mechanistic approach to scaling a leaf-level model of ozone effects on photosynthesis to a complex canopy architecture. Environmental Pollution 115:425-436

Noormets A, Podila GK, Karnosky DF (2001) Rapid response of antioxidant enzymes to O3-induced oxidative stress in Populus tremuloides clones varying in O3 tolerance. Forest Genetics 7:339-342

Noormets A, McDonald EP, Dickson RE, Kruger EL, Sober A, Isebrands JG, Karnosky DF (2001) The effect of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on leaf- and branch-level photosynthesis and potential plant-level carbon gain in aspen. Trees 15:262-270

Noormets A, Sober A, Pell EJ, Dickson RE, Podila GK, Sober J, Isebrands JG, Karnosky DF (2001) Stomatal and non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis in two trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones exposed to elevated CO2 and/or O3. Plant, Cell and Environment 24:327-336

Norby RJ, Ogle K, Curtis PS, Badeck F-W, Huth A, Hurtt GC, Kohyama T, Peuelas J (2001) Aboveground growth and competition in forest gap models: an analysis for studies of climatic change. Climatic Change 51:415-447

O'Brien JJ, Oberbauer SF (2001) An inexpensive portable meter to read soil moisture probes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65:1081-1083

Oksanen E, Sober J, Karnosky DF (2001) Interactions of elevated CO2 and/or O3 on leaf ultrastructure of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and birch (Betula papyrifera) in the aspen FACE experiment. Environmental Pollution 115:437-446

Potter CS, Wang S, Nikolov NT, McGuire AD, Liu J, King AW, Kimball JS, Grant RF, Frolking SE, Clein JS, Chen JM, Amthor JS (2001) Comparison of boreal ecosystem model sensitivity to variability in climate and forest site parameters. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:33,671-33,688

Reich PB, Knops J, Tilman D, Craine J, Ellsworth D, Tjoelker M, Lee T, Wedin D, Naeem S, Bahauddin D, Hendrey G, Jose S, Wrage K, Goth J, Bengston W (2001) Plant diversity enhances ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition. Nature 410:809-812; 411:824

Reich PB, Tilman D, Craine J, Ellsworth D, Tjoelker M, Knops J, Wedin D, Naeem S, Bahauddin D, Goth J, Bengston W, Lee TD (2001) Do species and functional groups differ in acquisition and use of C, N and water under varying atmospheric CO2 and N availability regimes? A field test with 16 grassland species. New Phytologist 150:435-448

Rustad LE, Campbell JL, Marion GM, Norby RJ, Mitchell MJ, Hartley AE, Cornelissen JHC, Gurevitch J, and GCTE-NEWS (2001) A meta-analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming. Oecologia 126:543-562

Schultz PA, Miller RM, Jastrow JD, Rivetta CV, Bever JD (2001) Evidence of a mycorrhizal mechanism for the adaptation of Andropogon gerardii (Poaceae) to high- and low-nutrient prairies. American Journal of Botany 88:1650-1656

Smart DR, Bloom AJ (2001) Wheat leaves emit nitrous oxide during nitrate assimilation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98:7875-7878

Takeuchi Y, Kubiske ME, Isebrands JG, Pregitzer KS, Hendrey G, Karnosky DF (2001) Photosynthesis, light and nitrogen relationships in a young deciduous forest canopy under open-air CO2 enrichment. Plant, Cell and Environment 24:1257-1268

Tjoelker MG, Oleksyn J, Lee TD, Reich PB (2001) Direct inhibition of leaf dark respiration by elevated CO2 is minor in 12 grassland species. New Phytologist 150:419-424

Wang XZ, Curtis PS, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR (2001) Genotypic variation in physiological and growth responses of Populus tremuloides to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Tree Physiology 20:1019-1028

Wilson KB, Baldocchi DD, Hanson PJ (2001) Leaf age affects the seasonal pattern of photosynthetic capacity and net ecosystem exchange of carbon in a deciduous forest. Plant, Cell and Environment 24:571-583

Wilson KB, Hanson PJ, Mulholland PJ, Baldocchi DD, Wullschleger SD (2001) A comparison of methods for determining forest evapotranspiration and its components: sap-flow, soil water budget, eddy covariance and catchment water balance. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 106:153-168

Wullschleger SD, Hanson PJ, Todd DE (2001) Transpiration from a multi-species deciduous forest as estimated by xylem sap flow techniques. Forest Ecology and Management 143:205-213

Wullschleger SD, Jackson RB, Currie WS, Friend AD, Luo Y, Mouillot F, Pan Y, Shao G (2001) Below-ground processes in gap models for simulating forest response to global change. Climatic Change 51:449-473

Wustman BA, Oksanen E, Karnosky DF, Sober J, Isebrands JG, Hendrey GR, Pregitzer KS, Podila GK (2001) Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on aspen clones varying in O3 sensitivity: can CO2 ameliorate the harmful effects of O3? Environmental Pollution 115:473-481


Allen MF (2000) Mycorrhizae. In: M Alexander (ed) Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, 328-336

Amthor JS (2000) The McCree--de Wit--Penning de Vries--Thornley respiration paradigms: 30 years later. Annals of Botany 86:1-20

Amthor JS (2000) Direct effect of elevated CO2 on nocturnal in situ leaf respiration in nine temperate deciduous tree species is small. Tree Physiology 20:139-144

Auge; RM, Green CD, Stodola AJW, Saxton AM, Olinick JB, Evans RM (2000) Correlations of stomatal conductance with hydraulic and chemical factors in several deciduous tree species in a natural habitat. New Phytologist 145:483-500

BassiriRad H, Gutschick VP, Lussenhop J (2000) Root system adjustments: regulation of plant nutrient uptake and growth responses to elevated CO2. Oecologia 126:305-320

Clark DB, Clark DA (2000) Landscape-scale variation in forest structure and biomass in a tropical rain forest. Forest Ecology and Management 137:185-198

Curtis PS, Vogel CS, Wang X, Pregtizer KS, Zak DR, Kubiske ME, Teeri JA (2000) Gas exchange, leaf nitrogen, and growth efficiency of Populus tremuloides in a CO2 enriched atmosphere. Ecological Applications 10:3-17

Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP (2000) The interplay between climate change, forests, and disturbances. The Science of the Total Environment 262:201-204

DeLucia EH, Thomas RB (2000) Photosynthetic responses to CO2 enrichment of four hardwood species in a forest understory. Oecologia 122:11-19

DeLucia EH, Maherali H, Carey EV (2000) Climate-driven changes in biomass allocation compromise the ability of pines to store atmospheric carbon. Global Change Biology 6:587-593

Dunbar J, Ticknor LO, Kuske CR (2000) Assessment of microbial diversity in four Southwestern U.S. soils by 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:2943-2950

Englund SR, O'Brien JJ, Clark DB (2000) Evaluation of digital and film hemispherical photography and spherical densiometry for measuring forest light environments. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30:1999-2005

Gunderson CA, Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD (2000) Acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration to simulated climatic warming in northern and southern populations of Acer saccharum: laboratory and field evidence. Tree Physiology 20:87-96

Gunter LE, Tuskan GA, Gunderson CA, Norby RJ (2000) Genetic variation and spatial structure in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and implications for predicted global-scale environmental change. Global Change Biology 6:335-344

Hanson PJ (2000) Large-scale water manipulations. In: OE Sala, RB Jackson, HA Mooney, RW Howarth (eds) Methods in Ecosystem Science. Springer-Verlag, New York, 341-352

Hanson PJ, Edwards NT, Garten CT Jr, Andrews JA (2000) Separating root and soil microbial contributions to soil respiration: a review of methods and observations. Biogeochemistry 48:115-146

Hanson PJ, Weltzin JF (2000) Drought disturbance from climate change: response of United States forests. The Science of the Total Environment 262:205-220

Isebrands JG, Dickson RE, Rebbeck J, Karnosky DF (2000) Interacting effects of multiple stresses on growth and physiological processes in northern forests. In: RE Mickler, RA Birdsey, J Hom (eds) Responses of Northern U.S. forests to Environmental Change. Springer-Verlag, New York, 149-180

Isebrands JG, Host GE, Lenz KE, Wu G, Stech HW (2000) Hierarchical, parallel computing strategies using Component Object Model for process modelling responses of forest plantations to interacting multiple stresses. In: RJM Cuelemans, F Veroustraete, V Gond, JBHF Van Rensbergen (eds) Forest Ecosystem Modeling, Upscaling, and Remote Sensing. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, 123-135

Johnson DW, Susfalk RB, Gholz HL, Hanson PJ (2000) Simulated effects of temperature and precipitation change on several forest ecosystems. Journal of Hydrology 235:183-204

Joslin JD, Wolfe MH, Hanson PJ (2000) Effects of shifting water regimes on forest root systems. New Phytologist 147:117-129

Lindberg SE, Vette A, Miles C, Schaedlich F (2000) Mercury speciation in natural waters: measurement of dissolved gaseous mercury with a field analyzer. Biogeochemistry 48:237-259

Loehle C (2000) Forest ecotone response to climate change: sensitivity to temperature response functional forms. Canadian Journal Forest Research 30:1632-1645

Mikan CJ, Zak DR, Kubiske ME, Pregitzer KS (2000) Combined effects of atmospheric CO2 and N availability on the belowground carbon and nitrogen dynamics of aspen mesocosms. Oecologia 124:432-445

Miller RM, Jastrow JD (2000) Mycorrhizal fungi influence soil structure. In: Y Kapulnik, D Douds (eds) Arbuscular Mycorrhizas: Physiology and Function. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 3-18

Miller RM, Kling M (2000) The importance of integration and scale in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Plant and Soil 226:295-309

Mulholland PJ, DeAngelis DL (2000) Effect of surface/subsurface exchange on nutrient dynamics and nutrient spiraling in streams. In: JB Jones Jr., PJ Mulholland (eds) Streams and Ground Waters. Academic, San Diego, California 149-166

Muller-Starck G, Degen B, Hattemer H, Karnosky D, Kremer A, Paule L, Percy K, Scholz F, Shen X, Vendramin G (2000) Genetic response of forest systems to changing environmental conditions - analysis and management. Forest Genetics 7:247-254

Nielsen MG, Watt WB (2000) Interference competition and sexual selection promote the maintenance of polymorphism in Colias (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Functional Ecology 14:718-730

Oberbauer SF, Loescher HW, Clark DB (2000) Effects of climate factors on daytime carbon exchange from an old growth forest in Costa Rica. Selbyana 21:66-73

Pregitzer KS, King JS, Burton AJ, Brown SE (2000) Response of tree fine roots to temperature. New Phytologist 147:105-115

Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Maziasz J, DeForest J, Curtis PS, Lussenhop J (2000) Interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and soil-N availability on fine roots of Populus tremuloides. Ecological Applications 10:18-33

Rosemond AD, Mulholland PJ, Brawley SH (2000) Seasonally shifting limitation of stream periphyton: response of algal populations and assemblage biomass and productivity to variation in light, nutrients, and herbivores. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:66-75

Rothstein DE, Zak DR, Pretgitzer KS, Curtis PS (2000) Kinetics of nitrogen uptake by Populus tremuloides in relation to atmospheric CO2 and soil nitrogen availability. Tree Physiology 20:265-270

Singsaas EL, Ort DR, DeLucia EH (2000) Diurnal regulation of photosynthesis in understory saplings. New Phytologist 145:39-49

Stylinski CD, Oechel WC, Gamon JA, Tissue DT, Miglietta F, Raschi A (2000) Effects of lifelong [CO2] enrichment on carboxylation and light utilization of Quercus pubescens Willd. examined with gas exchange, biochemistry and optical techniques. Plant, Cell and Environment 23:1353-1362

Treseder KK, Allen MF (2000) Mycorrhizal fungi have a potential role in soil carbon storage under elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition. New Phytologist 147:189-200

Treseder KK, Allen MF (2000) Black boxes and missing sinks: fungi in global change research. Mycological Research 104:1281-1283

Watt WB (2000) Avoiding paradigm-based limits to knowledge of evolution. Evolutionary Biology 32:73-96

Wilson KB, Baldocchi DD, Hanson PJ (2000) Quantifying stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to carbon assimilation resulting from leaf aging and drought in mature deciduous tree species. Tree Physiology 20:787-797

Wilson KB, Baldocchi DD, Hanson PJ (2000) Spatial and seasonal variability of photosynthetic parameters and their relationship to leaf nitrogen in a deciduous forest. Tree Physiology 20:565-578

Wilson KB, Hanson PJ, Baldocchi DD (2000) Factors controlling evaporation and energy partitioning beneath a deciduous forest over an annual cycle. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 102:83-103

Wullschleger SD, King AW (2000) Radial variation in sap velocity as a function of stem diameter and sapwood thickness in yellow-poplar trees. Tree Physiology 20:511-518

Wullschleger SD, Wilson KB, Hanson PJ (2000) Environmental control of whole-plant transpiration, canopy conductance and estimates of the decoupling coefficient for large red maple trees. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 104:157-168

Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Curtis PS, Holmes WE (2000) Atmospheric CO2 and the composition and function of soil microbial communities. Ecological Applications 10:47-59

Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Curtis PS, Vogel CS, Holmes WE, Lussenhop J (2000) Atmospheric CO2, soil N availability, and the allocation of biomass and nitrogen in Populus tremuloides. Ecological Applications 10:34-46

Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, King JS, Holmes WE (2000) Elevated atmospheric CO2, fine roots and the response of soil microorganisms: a review and hypothesis. New Phytologist 147:201-222

Zerihun A, Gutschick VP, BassiriRad H (2000) Compensatory roles of nitrogen uptake and photosynthetic N-use efficiency in determining plant growth response to elevated CO2: evaluation using a functional balance model. Annals of Botany 86:723-730


Allen MF, Allen EB, Zink TA, Harney S, Yoshida LC, Siguenza C, Edwards F, Hinkson C, Rillig M, Bainbridge D, Doljanin C, MacAller R (1999) Soil microorganisms. In: LR Walker (ed) Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 521-544

Allen MF, Egerton-Warburton LM, Allen EB, Karen O (1999) Mycorrhizae in Adenostoma fasciculatum Hook. & Arn.: a combination of unusual ecto- and endo-forms. Mycorrhiza 8:225-228

Allen MF, Trappe FM, Horton TR (1999) NATS truffle and truffle-like fungi 8: Rhizopogon mengei sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Basidiomycota). Mycotaxon 70:149-152

Amthor JS (1999) Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, water use, and water stress: scaling up from the plant to the landscape. In: Y Luo, HA Mooney (eds) Carbon Dioxide and Environmental Stress. Academic Press, San Diego, 33-59

Barns SM, Takala SL, Kuske CR (1999) Wide distribution and diversity of members of the Acidobacterium bacterial kingdom in the environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65:1731-1737

BassiriRad H, Prior SA, Norby RJ, Rogers HH (1999) A field method of determining NH4 and NO3 uptake kinetics in intact roots: effects of CO2 enrichment on trees and crop species. Plant and Soil 217:195-204

DeLucia EH, Hamilton JG, Naidu SL, Thomas RB, Andrews JA, Finzi A, Lavine M, Matamala R, Mohan JE, Hendrey GR, Schlesinger WH (1999) Net primary production of a forested ecosystem under experimental CO2 enrichment. Science 284:1177-1179

Dunbar JD, Takala S, Barns SM, Davis JA, Kuske CR (1999) Levels of bacterial community diversity in four arid soils compared by cultivation and 16S rRNA gene cloning. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65:1662-1669

Gutschick VP (1999) Biotic and abiotic consequences of differences in leaf structure. New Phytologist 143:3-18

Hart DR, Mulholland PJ, Marzolf ER, DeAngelis DL, Hendricks SP (1999) Relationships between hydraulic parameters in a small stream under varying flow and seasonal conditions. Hydrologic Processes 13:1497-1510

Herrick JD, Thomas RB (1999) Effects of CO2 enrichment on the photosynthetic light response of sun and shade leaves of canopy sweetgum trees (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) in a forest ecosystem. Tree Physiology 19:779-786

Hirasawa T, Hsiao TC (1999) Some characteristics of reduced leaf photosynthesis at midday in maize growing in the field. Field Crops Research 62:53-62

Hsiao TC, Jackson RB (1999) Interactive effects of water stress and elevated CO2 on growth, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency. In: Y Luo, HA Mooney (eds) Carbon Dioxide and Environmental Stress. Academic Press, New York, 3-31

Huston MA (1999) Microcosm experiments have limited relevance for community and ecosystem ecology: synthesis of comments. Ecology 80:1088-1089

Huston MA (1999) Local processes and regional patterns: appropriate scales for understanding variation in the diversity of plants and animals. Oikos 86:393-401

Joslin JD, Wolfe MH (1999) Effects of minirhizotron installation disturbance upon root observation data. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63:218-221

Karnosky DF, Mankovska B, Percy K, Dickson RE, Podila GK, Sober J, Noormets A, Hendrey G, Coleman MD, Kubiske M, Pregitzer KS, Isebrands JG (1999) Effects of tropospheric O3 on trembling aspen and interaction with CO2: results from an O3-gradient and a FACE experiment. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 116:311-322

Karnosky D, Percy K, Mankovska B, Dickson RE, Isebrands J, Podila G (1999) Genetic implications for forest trees of increasing levels of greenhouse gases and UV-B radiation. In: C Matyas (ed) Forest Genetics and Sustainability. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 111-124

Kemner KM, Yun W, Cai Z, Lai B, Lee H-R, Maser J, Legnini DG, Rodrigues W, Jastrow JD, Miller RM, Pratt ST, Schneegurt MA, Kulpa CF (1999) Using zone plates for X-ray microimaging and microspectroscopy in environmental science. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 6:639-641

King JS, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR (1999) Clonal variation in above- and below-ground growth responses of Populus tremuloides Michaux: influence of soil warming and nutrient availability. Plant and Soil 217:119-130

Klironomos JN, Moutoglis P (1999) Colonization of non-mycorrhizal plants by mycorrhizal neighbours as influenced by the collembolan, Folsomia candida. Biology and Fertility of Soils 29:277-281

Klironomos JN, Bednarczuk EM, Neville J (1999) Reproductive significance of feeding on saprobic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by the collembolan, Folsomia candida. Functional Ecology 13:756-761

Klironomos JN, Rillig MC, Allen MF (1999) Designing belowground field experiments with the help of semi-variance and power analyses. Applied Soil Ecology 12:227-238

Kohane MJ, Watt WB (1999) Flight-muscle adenylate pool responses to flight demands and thermal constraints in individual Colias (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Journal of Experimental Biology 202:3145-3154

Kuske CR, Busch JD, Adorada DL, Dunbar JM, Barns SM (1999) Phylogeny, ribosomal RNA gene typing and relative abundance of new Pseudomonas species (sensu stricto) isolated from two pinyon-juniper woodland soils of the arid Southwest U.S. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 22:300-311

Loomis RS, Amthor JS (1999) Yield potential, plant assimilatory capacity, and metabolic efficiencies. Crop Science 39:1584-1596

Mansfield JL, Curtis PS, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS (1999) Genotypic variation for condensed tannin production in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) under elevated CO2 and in high and low fertility. American Journal of Botany 86:1154-1159

Moreno JM, Cruz A, Oechel WC (1999) Allometric relationships in two lignotuberous species from Mediterranean-type climate areas of Spain and California. Journal of Mediterranean Ecology 1:49-60

Meyer JL, Sale MJ, Mulholland PJ, Poff NL (1999) Impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystem functioning and health. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 35:1373-1386

Myers DA, Thomas RB, DeLucia EH (1999) Photosynthetic responses of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles to experimental sink demand reduction. Tree Physiology 19:235-242

Myers DA, Thomas RB, DeLucia EH (1999) Photosynthetic capacity of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) during the first year of carbon dioxide enrichment in a forest ecosystem. Plant, Cell and Environment 22:473-482

Miller RM, Smith CI, Jastrow JD, Bever JD (1999) Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae). American Journal of Botany 86:547-553

Moore DJ, Nowak RS, Tausch RJ (1999) Gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination of Juniperus osteosperma and Juniperus occidentalis across environmental gradients in the Great Basin of western North America. Tree Physiology 19:421-433

Naidu SL, DeLucia EH (1999) First-year growth response of trees in an intact forest exposed to elevated CO2. Global Change Biology 5:609-614

Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Johnson DW, Ceulemans R (1999) Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: implications for the future forest. Plant, Cell and Environment 22:683-714

Percy K, Bucher J, Cape J, Ferretti M, Heath R, Jones HE, Karnosky D, Matyssek R, Muller-Starck G, Paoletti E, Rosengren-Brinck U, Sheppard L, Skelly J, Weetman G (1999) State of science and knowledge gaps with respect to air pollution impacts on forests: reports from concurrent IUFRO 7.04.00 working party sessions. Journal of Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 116:443-448

Peterson AG, Ball JT, Luo Y, Field CB, Curtis PS, Griffin KL, Gunderson CA, Norby RJ, Tissue DT, Forstreuter M, Rey A, Vogel CS, and CMEAL participants (1999) Quantifying the response of photosynthesis to changes in leaf nitrogen content and leaf mass per area in plants grown under atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Plant, Cell and Environment 22:1109-1119

Peterson AG, Ball JT, Luo Y, Field CB, Reich PB, Curtis PS, Griffin KL, Gunderson CA, Norby RJ, Tissue DT, Forstreuter M, Rey A, Vogel CS, and CMEAL participants (1999) The photosynthesis--leaf nitrogen relationship at ambient and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 5:331-346

Rillig MC, Allen MF (1999) What is the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant-to-ecosystem responses to elevated atmospheric CO2? Mycorrhiza 9:1-8

Rillig MC, Field CB, Allen MF (1999) Soil biota responses to long-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment in two California annual grasslands. Oecologia 119:572-577

Rillig MC, Field CB, Allen MF (1999) Fungal root colonization responses in natural grasslands after long-term exposure to elevated CO2. Global Change Biology 5:577-585

Rillig MC, Wright SF, Allen MF, Field CB (1999) Rise in carbon dioxide changes soil structure. Nature 400:628

Trettin CC, Johnson DW, Todd DE Jr (1999) Forest nutrient and carbon pools at Walker Branch Watershed: changes during a 21-year period. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63:1436-1448

Whitham TG, Martinsen GD, Floate KD, Dungey HS, Potts BM, Keim P (1999) Plant hybrid zones affect biodiversity: tools for a genetic-based understanding of community structure. Ecology 80:416-428

Xu L-K, Matista AA, Hsiao TC (1999) A technique for measuring CO2 and water vapor profiles within and above plant canopies over short periods. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 94:1-12


Amthor JS (1998) Perspective on the relative insignificance of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration to crop yield. Field Crops Research 58:109-127

Auge; RM, Duan X, Croker JL, Witte WT, Green CD (1998) Foliar dehydration tolerance of twelve deciduous tree species. Journal of Experimental Botany 49:753-759

Chandler DP, Wagnon CA, Bolton H Jr (1998) Reverse transcriptase inhibition of the PCR at low template concentrations and its implications for quantitative RT-PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:669-677

Cook AC, Tissue DT, Roberts SW, Oechel WC (1998) Effects of long-term elevated CO2 from natural CO2 springs on Nardus stricta: photosynthesis, biochemistry, growth and phenology. Plant, Cell and Environment 21:417-425

Croker JL, Witte WT, Auge; RM (1998) Stomatal sensitivity to nonhydraulic root to-shoot signals of partial soil drying in six temperate, deciduous forest trees. Journal of Experimental Botany 49:761-774

Dawson TE, Ehleringer JR (1998) Plants, isotopes and water use: a catchment-scale perspective. In: C Kendall, J McDonnell (eds) Tracers in Catchment Hydrology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 165-202

Dickson RE, Coleman MD, Riemenschneider DE, Isebrands JG, Hogan GD, Karnosky DF (1998) Growth of five hybrid poplar genotypes exposed to interacting elevated CO2 and O3. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28:1706-1716

Ehleringer JR, Evans RD, Williams D (1998) Assessing sensitivity to change in desert ecosystems -- a stable isotope approach. In: H Griffiths (ed) Stable Isotopes Integration of Biological, Ecological, and Geochemical Processes. BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, 223-237

Gebre GM, Tschaplinski TJ, Shirshac TL (1998) Response in water relations of several hardwood species to throughfall manipulation in an upland oak forest during a wet year. Tree Physiology 18:299-305

Gehring CA, Theimer TC, Whitham TG, Keim P (1998) Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure of pinyon pines growing in two environmental extremes. Ecology 79:1562-1572

Jastrow JD, Miller RM, Lussenhop J (1998) Contributions of interacting biological mechanisms to soil aggregate stabilization in restored prairie. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30:905-916

Johnson DW, Hanson PJ, Todd DE, Susfalk RB, Trettin C (1998) Precipitation change and soil leaching: field results and simulations from Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 105:251-262

Jones JB Jr, Mulholland PJ (1998) Carbon dioxide variation in a hardwood forest stream: an integrative measure of whole catchment ecosystem respiration. Ecosystems 1:183-196

Jones JB, Mulholland PJ (1998) Influence of drainage basin topography and elevation on carbon dioxide and methane supersaturation of stream water. Biogeochemistry 40:57-72

Jones JB, Mulholland PJ (1998) Methane input and evasion in a hardwood forest stream: effects of subsurface flow from shallow and deep pathways. Limnology and Oceanography 43:1243-1250

Joslin JD, Wolfe MH (1998) Impacts of long-term water input manipulations on fine root production and mortality in mature hardwood forests. Plant and Soil 204:165-174

Karnosky DF, Podila GK, Gagnon Z, Pechter P, Akkapeddi A, Coleman M, Dickson RE, Isebrands JG (1998) Genetic control of responses to interacting O3 and CO2 in Populus tremuloides. Chemosphere 36:807-812

Klironomos JN, Ursic M, Rillig MC, Allen MF (1998) Inter-specific differences in the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to elevated atmospheric CO2. New Phytologist 138:599-603

Kubiske ME, Pregitzer KS, Mikan CJ, Zak DR (1998) Growth and C allocation of Populus tremuloides clones in response to atmospheric CO2 and soil N availability. New Phytologist 140:251-260

Kuske CR, Banton KL, Adorada DL, Hill KK, Stark P, Jackson PJ (1998) Small-scale, portable DNA sample preparation for in-the-field PCR detection of microbial cells and spores in soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:2463-2472

Loehle C (1998) Height growth rate tradeoffs determine northern and southern range limits for trees. Journal of Biogeography 25:735-742

Lu Z, Percy RG, Qualset CO, Zeiger E (1998) Stomatal conductance predicts yields in irrigated Pima cotton and bread wheat grown at high temperatures. Journal of Experimental Botany 49:453-460

Luxmoore RJ, Hanson PJ, Beauchamp JJ, Joslin JD (1998) Passive nighttime warming facility for forest ecosystem research. Tree Physiology 18:615-623

Mankovska B, Percy K, Karnosky DF (1998) Impact of ambient tropospheric O3, CO2, and particulates on the epicuticular waxes of aspen clones differing in O3 tolerance. Ekológia 18:200-210

Naidu SL, DeLucia EH, Thomas RB (1998) Contrasting patterns of biomass allocation in dominant and suppressed loblolly pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28:1116-1124

Nielsen MG, Watt WB (1998) Behavioral fitness component effects of the "alba" polymorphism of Colias (Lepidoptera, Pieridae): resource and time budget analysis. Functional Ecology 12:149-158

Pollock DD, Watt WB, Rashbrook VK, Conn EV (1998) Molecular phylogeny for Colias butterflies and their relatives (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91:524-531

Rillig MC, Allen MF (1998) Arbuscular mycorrhizae of Gutierrrezia sarothrae and elevated carbon dioxide: evidence for shifts in C allocation to and within the mycobiont. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30:2001-2008

Rillig MC, Allen MF, Klironomos JN, Chiariello NR, Field CB (1998) Plant species-specific changes in root-inhabiting fungi in a California annual grassland: responses to elevated CO2 and nutrients. Oecologia 113:252-259

Rillig MC, Allen MF, Klironomos JN, Field CB (1998) Arbuscular mycorrhizal percent root infection and infection intensity of Bromus hordeaceus grown in elevated atmospheric CO2. Mycologia 90:199-205

Roberts S, Oechel WC, Hastings SJ, Bryant P (1998) A field fumigation system for elevated carbon dioxide exposure in chaparral vegetation. Functional Ecology 12:708-719

Sandquist DR, Ehleringer JR (1998) Intraspecific variation of drought adaptation in brittlebush: leaf pubescence and timing of leaf loss vary with rainfall. Oecologia 113:162-169

Shure DS, Mooreside PD, Ogle SM (1998) Rainfall effects on plant--herbivore processes in an upland oak forest. Ecology 79:604-617

Smart DR, Bloom AJ (1998) Investigations of ion absorption during NH4 exposure: I. Relationship between H+ efflux and NO3 absorption. Journal of Experimental Botany 49:95-100

Smart DR, Ritchie K, Bloom AJ, Bugbee BB (1998) Nitrogen balances for wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum cv Veery 10) grown under elevated CO2. Plant, Cell and Environment 21:753-764

Steduto P, Hsiao TC (1998) Maize canopies under two soil water regimes. I. Diurnal patterns of energy balance, carbon dioxide flux, and canopy conductance. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 89:169-184

Steduto P, Hsiao TC (1998) Maize canopies under two soil water regimes. II. Seasonal trends of evapotranspiration, carbon dioxide assimilation and canopy conductance, and as related to leaf area index. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 89:185-200

Steduto P, Hsiao TC (1998) Maize canopies under two soil water regimes. III. Variation in coupling with the atmosphere and the role of leaf area index. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 89:201-213

Steduto P, Hsiao TC (1998) Maize canopies under two soil water regimes. IV. Validity of Bowen ratio-energy balance technique for measuring water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes at 5-minute intervals. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 89:215-228

Tschaplinski TJ, Gebre GM, Shirshac TL (1998) Osmotic potential of several hardwood species as affected by manipulation of throughfall precipitation in an upland oak forest during a dry year. Tree Physiology 18:291-298

Wullschleger SD, Hanson PJ, Tschaplinski TJ (1998) Whole-plant water flux in understory red maple exposed to altered precipitation regimes. Tree Physiology 18:71-79

Wullschleger SD, Meinzer FC, Vertessy RA (1998) A review of whole plant water use studies in trees. Tree Physiology 18:499-512

Yun W, Pratt ST, Miller RM, Cai Z, Hunter DB, Jarstfer AG, Kemner KM, Lai B, Lee H-R, Legnini DG, Rodrigues W, Smith CI (1998) X-ray imaging and microspectroscopy of plants and fungi. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 5:1390-1395


Allen MF, Klironomos J, Harney S (1997) The epidemiology of mycorrhizal fungi during succession. In: G Carroll, P Tudzynski (eds) The Mycota, Volume VB. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 169-183

Amthor JS (1997) Plant respiratory responses to elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure. In: LH Allen Jr, MB Kirkham, DM Olszyk, CE Whitman (eds) Advances in Carbon Dioxide Effects Research. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, 35-77

Amthor JS (1997) Calculation of daylength. Computer Applications in the Biosciences 13:479-480

BassiriRad H, Griffin KL, Reynolds JF, Strain BR (1997) Changes in root NH4 and NO3 absorption rates of loblolly and ponderosa pine in response to CO2 enrichment. Plant and Soil 190:1-9

BassiriRad H, Reynolds JF, Virginia RA, Brunelle MH (1997) Growth and root NO3 and PO4 uptake capacity of three desert species in response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24:353-358

Bloom AJ (1997) Interactions between inorganic nitrogen nutrition and root development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 160:253-259

Cerling TE, Harris JM, MacFadden BJ, Leakey MG, Quade J, Eisenmann V, Ehleringer JR (1997) Global vegetation change through the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Nature 389:153-158

Chandler DP, Schreckhise RW, Smith JL, Bolton H Jr (1997) Electroelution to remove humic compounds from soil DNA and RNA extracts. Journal of Microbiological Methods 28:11-19

Cobb NS, Mopper S, Gehring CA, Caouette M, Christensen KM, Whitham TG (1997) Increased moth herbivory associated with environmental stress of pinyon pine at local and regional levels. Oecologia 109:389-397

Cook AC, Oechel WC, Sveinbjornsson B (1997) Using Icelandic CO2 springs to understand the long-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. In: A Raschi, F Miglietta, R Tognetti, and PR van Gardingen (eds) Plant Responses to Elevated CO2: Evidence from Natural Springs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), 87-102

Drennan PM, Nobel PS (1997) Frequencies of major C3, C4 and CAM perennials on different slopes in the northwestern Sonoran Desert. Flora 192:297-304

Ehleringer JR, Cerling TE, Helliker BR (1997) C4 photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate. Oecologia 112:285-299

Ehleringer JR, Sandquist DR, Phillips SL (1997) Burning coal seams in southern Utah: a natural system for studies of plant responses to elevated CO2. In: A Raschi, F Miglietta, R Tognetti, PR van Gardingen (eds) Plant Responses to Elevated CO2 Evidence From Natural Springs. Cambridge University Press, London, 56-68

Halvorson JJ, Bolton H Jr, Smith JL (1997) The patterns of soil variables related to Artemisia tridentata in a burned shrub-steppe site. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:287-294

Harney SL, Edwards F, Allen MF (1997) Identification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from Artemisia californica using the polymerase chain reaction. Mycologia 89:547-550

Holmgren M, Scheffer M, Huston MA (1997) The interplay of facilitation and competition in plant communities. Ecology 78:1966-1975

Huston MA (1997) Hidden treatments in ecological experiments: re-evaluating the ecosystem function of biodiversity. Oecologia 110:449-460

Klironomos JN, Allen MF, Rillig MC, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Kubiske ME (1997) Increased levels of airborne fungal spores in response to Populus tremuloides grown under elevated atmospheric CO2. Canadian Journal of Botany 75:1670-1673

Klironomos JN, Rillig MC, Allen MF, Zak DR, Kubiske ME, Pregitzer KS (1997) Soil fungal-arthropod responses to Populus tremuloides grown under enriched atmospheric CO2 under field conditions. Global Change Biology 3:473-478

Kubiske ME, Pregitzer KS, Mikan CJ, Zak DR, Maziasz JL, Teeri JA (1997) Populus tremuloides photosynthesis and crown architecture in response to elevated CO2 and soil N availability. Oecologia 110:328-336

Kuske CR, Barns SM, Busch JD (1997) Diverse uncultivated bacterial groups from soils of the arid Southwest US that are present in many geographic regions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63:3614-3621

Loehle C (1997) A hypothesis testing framework for evaluating ecosystem model performance. Ecological Modelling 97:153-165

Lu Z, Chen J, Percy RG, Zeiger E (1997) Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and leaf area in two cotton species (Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum) and their relation with heat resistance and yield. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24:693-700

Miller RM (1997) Prairie underground. In: S Packard, CF Mutel (eds) Prairie Restoration. Island Press, Washington (DC), 23-27

Miller RM, Hetrick BAD, Wilson GWT (1997) Mycorrhizal fungi affect root stele tissue in grasses. Canadian Journal of Botany 75:1778-1784

Miller RM, Lodge JD (1997) The contributions of fungi to agriculture and forestry. In: D Wicklow, B Soderstrom (eds) The Mycota, Volume IV. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 65-84

Morris SJ, Zink T, Conners K, Allen MF (1997) Comparison between fluorescein diacetate and differential fluorescent staining procedures for determining fungal biomass in soils. Applied Soil Ecology 6:161-167

Mulholland PJ (1997) Organic matter dynamics in the West Fork of Walker Branch, Tennessee, USA. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:61-67

Mulholland PJ (1997) Dissolved organic matter concentration and flux in streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:131-141

Mulholland PJ, Hill WR (1997) Separating catchment flowpath and instream effects on stream nutrient and DOC concentrations: evidence from long-term data records. Water Resources Research 33:1297-1306

Mulholland PJ, Best GR, Coutant CC, Hornberger GM, Meyer JL, Robinson PJ, Stenberg JR, Turner RE, Vera-Herrera F, Wetzel RG (1997) Effects of climate change on freshwaters of the Southeastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico. Hydrological Processes 11:949-970

Mummey DL, Smith JL, Bolton H Jr (1997) Small-scale spatial and temporal variability of N2O flux from a shrub-steppe ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29:1699-1706

Nobel PS (1997) Root distribution and seasonal production in the northwestern Sonoran Desert for a C3 subshrub, a C4 bunchgrass, and a CAM leaf succulent. American Journal of Botany 84:949-955

Nobel PS, Linton MJ (1997) Frequencies, microclimate and root properties for three codominant perennials in the northwestern Sonoran Desert on north- vs. south-facing slopes. Annals of Botany 80:731-739

Nobel PS, Zhang H (1997) Photosynthetic responses of three codominant species from the northwestern Sonoran Desert -- a C3 deciduous shrub, a C4 deciduous bunchgrass, and a CAM evergreen leaf succulent. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24:787-796

Rillig MC, Scow KM, Allen MF (1997) Microbial carbon-substrate utilization in the rhizosphere of Gutierrezia sarothrae grown in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29:1387-1394

Sandquist DR, Ehleringer JR (1997) Potential adaptability and constraints of response to changing climates for Encelia farinosa var. phenicodonta from southern Baja California, Mexico. Madro-o 43:465-478

Sandquist DR, Ehleringer JR (1997) Intraspecific variation of leaf pubescence and drought response in Encelia farinosa. Genetic differentiation associated with contrasting desert environments. New Phytologist 135:635-644

Tallman G, Zhu JX, Mawson BT, Amodeo G, Nouhi Z, Levy K, Zeiger E (1997) Induction of CAM in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum abolishes the stomatal response to blue light and light-dependent zeaxanthin formation in guard cell chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology 38:236-242

Wang N, Zhang H, Nobel PS (1997) Phloem-xylem water flow in developing cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica during sink-to-source transition. Journal of Experimental Botany 48:675-682

Watt WB (1997) Accuracy, anecdotes, and artifacts in the study of insect thermal ecology. Oikos 80:399-400


Allen MF (1996) The ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizae: a look back into the 20th century and a peek into the 21st. Mycological Research 100:769-782

Allen MF, Figueroa C, Weinbaum BS, Barlow SB, Allen EB (1996) Differential production of oxalates by mycorrhizal fungi in arid ecosystems. Biology and Fertility of Soils 22:287-292

Amthor JS, Koch GW (1996) Biota growth factor ß: stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem net primary production by elevated atmospheric CO2. In: GW Koch, HA Mooney (eds) Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Academic Press, San Diego, 399-414

Amthor JS, Loomis RS (1996) Integrating knowledge of crop responses to elevated CO2 and temperature with mechanistic simulation models: model components and research needs. In: GW Koch, HA Mooney (eds) Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Academic Press, San Diego, 317-345

Arnell N, Bates B, Lang H, Magnuson J, Mulholland P (1996) Hydrology and freshwater ecology. In: RT Watson, MC Zinyowera, RH Moss (eds) Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 325-363

BassiriRad H, Griffin KL, Strain BR, Reynolds JF (1996) Effects of CO2 enrichment on growth and root 15-NH4 uptake rate of loblolly pine and ponderosa pine seedlings. Tree Physiology 16:957-962

BassiriRad H, Thomas RB, Reynolds JF, Strain BR (1996) Differential responses of root kinetics of NH4 and NO3 to enriched atmospheric CO2 concentration in field-grown loblolly pine. Plant, Cell and Environment 19:367-371

BassiriRad H, Tissue DT, Reynolds JF, Chapin FS III (1996) Response of Eriophorum vaginatum to CO2 enrichment at different soil temperatures: effects on growth, root respiration and 32-PO4 uptake kinetics. New Phytologist 133:423-430

Curtis PS, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Lussenhop J, Teeri JA (1996) Linking above- and belowground responses to rising CO2 in northern deciduous forest species. In: GW Koch, HA Mooney (eds) Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Academic Press, San Diego, 41-51

Drennan PM, Nobel PS (1996) Temperature influences on root growth for Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae), Pleuraphis rigida (Poaceae), and Agave deserti (Agavaceae) under current and doubled CO2 concentrations. American Journal of Botany 83:133-139

Edwards NT, Hanson PJ (1996) Stem respiration in a closed-canopy upland oak forest. Tree Physiology 16:433-439

Evans RD, Bloom AJ, Sukrapanna SS, Ehleringer JR (1996) Nitrogen isotope composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv T-5) grown under ammonium or nitrate nutrition. Plant, Cell and Environment 19:1317-1323

Halvorson JJ, Bolton H Jr, Smith JL (1996) The patterns of soil variables related to Artemisia tridentata in a burned shrub-steppe site. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:287-294

Jackson RB, Canadell J, Ehleringer JR, Mooney HA, Sala OE, Schulze E-D (1996) A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes. Oecologia 108:389-411

Kimberling DN, Ferreira AR, Shuster S, Keim P (1996) Genetic comparisons among isolated northern leopard frog populations in the Southwest: implications for threatened populations. Molecular Ecology 5:521-529

Klironomos JN, Rillig MC, Allen MF (1996) Below-ground microbial and microfaunal responses to Artemisia tridentata grown under elevated atmospheric CO2. Functional Ecology 10:527-534

Loehle C (1996) Forest response to climate change: do simulations predict unrealistic dieback? Journal of Forestry 94(9):13-15

Loehle C, LeBlanc DC (1996) Model-based assessments of climate change effects on forests: a critical review. Ecological Modelling 90:1-31

Lu ZM, Chen JW, Percy RG, Sharifi MR, Rundel PW, Zeiger E (1996) Genetic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and its relation to stomatal conductance in pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense). Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 23:127-132

Nobel PS (1996) Responses of some North American CAM plants to freezing temperatures and doubled CO2 concentrations: implications of global climate change for extending cultivation. Journal of Arid Environments 34:187-196

Nobel PS (1996) Ecophysiology of roots of desert plants, with special emphasis on agaves and cacti. In: Y Waisel, A Eshel, U Kafkafi (eds) Plant Roots: The Hidden Half, 2nd Edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, 823-844

Nobel PS, Israel AA, Wang N (1996) Growth, CO2 uptake, and responses of the carboxylating enzymes to inorganic carbon for two highly productive CAM species at current and doubled CO2 concentrations. Plant, Cell and Environment 19:585-592

Nobel PS, North GB (1996) Features of roots of CAM plants. In: K Winter, JAC Smith (eds) Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Evolution. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 266-280

North GB, Nobel PS (1996) Radial hydraulic conductivity of individual root tissues of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as soil moisture varies. Annals of Botany 77:133-142

Percy RG, Lu ZM, Radin JW, Turcotte El, Zeiger E (1996) Inheritance of stomatal conductance in cotton (Gossypium barbadense). Physiologia Plantarum 96:389-394

Randlett DL, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Curtis PS (1996) Elevated atmospheric CO2 and leaf litter chemistry: influences on microbial respiration and N mineralization. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60:1571-1577

Schulze E-D, Mooney HA, Sala OE, Jobbagy E, Buchmann N, Bauer G, Canadell J, Jackson RB, Loreti J, Osterheld M, Ehleringer JR (1996) Rooting depth, water availability, and vegetation cover along an aridity gradient in Patagonia. Oecologia 108:503-511

Su H-B, Paw U KT, Shaw RH (1996) Development of a coupled leaf and canopy model for the simulation of plant--atmosphere interactions. Journal of Applied Meteorology 35:733-748

Travis SE, Maschinshi J, Keim P (1996) An analysis of genetic variation in Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax, a critically endangered plants, using AFLP markers. Molecular Ecology 5:735-745

Wang N, Nobel PS (1996) Doubling the CO2 concentration enhanced the activity of carbohydrate-metabolism enzymes, source carbohydrate production, photoassimilate transport, and sink strength for Opuntia ficus-indica. Plant Physiology 110:893-902

Watt WB, Donohue K, Carter PA (1996) Adaptation at specific loci. VI. Divergence vs. parallelism of polymorphic allozymes in molecular function and fitness-component effects among Colias species (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Molecular Biology and Evolution 13:699-709

Wullschleger SD, Hanson PJ (1996) Measuring stem water content in four deciduous hardwoods with a time-domain reflectometer. Tree Physiology 16:809-815

Zak DR, Ringelberg D, Pregitzer KS, Randlett DL, White DW, Curtis PS (1996) Soil microbial communities beneath Populus grandidentata Michx. grown under elevated atmospheric CO2. Ecological Applications 6:257-262

Zhang H, Nobel PS (1996) Photosynthesis and carbohydrate partitioning for the C3 desert shrub Encelia farinose under current and doubled CO2 concentrations. Plant Physiology 110:1361-1366

Zhang H, Nobel PS (1996) Dependency of ci/ca and leaf transpiration efficiency on the vapour pressure deficit. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 23:561-568


Allen MF, Morris SJ, Edwards F, Allen EB (1995) Microbe-plant interactions in Mediterranean-type habitats: shifts in fungal symbiotic and saprophytic functioning in response to global change. In: JM Moreno, WC Oechel (eds) Global Change and Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York, 287-305

Bolker BM, Pacala SW, Bazzaz FA, Canham CD, Levin SA (1995) Species diversity and ecosystem response to carbon dioxide fertilization: conclusions from a temperate forest model. Global Change Biology 1:373-381

Durrett R, Levin SA (1995) Spatial models for species-area curves. Journal of Theoretical Biology 179:119-127

Gehring CA, Whitham TG (1995) Duration of herbivore removal and environmental stress affect the ectomycorrhizae of pinyon pine. Ecology 76:2118-2123

Halvorson JJ, Smith JL, Bolton H Jr, Rossi RE (1995) Evaluating shrub-associated spatial patterns of soil properties in a shrub-steppe ecosystem using multiple-variable geostatistics. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59:1476-1487

Hanson PJ, Todd DE, Edwards NT, Huston MA (1995) Field performance of the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment. In: A Jenkins, RC Ferrier, C Kirby (eds) Ecosystem Manipulation Experiments: Scientific Approaches, Experimental Design and Relevant Results. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 307-313

Holt RD, Pacala SW, Smith TW, Liu J (1995) Linking contemporary vegetation models with spatially explicit animal population models. Ecological Applications 5:20-27

Kauffman SA, Macready WG (1995) Search strategies for applied molecular evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 173:427-440

Klironomos JN, Allen MF (1995) Changes in the rhizosphere microbial communities of sugar maple in response to UV-B radiation. Functional Ecology 9:923-930

Kobe R, Pacala SW, Silander JA, Canham CD (1995) Juvenile tree survivorship as a component of shade tolerance. Ecological Applications 5:317-332

Levitan B, Kauffman SA (1995) Adaptive walks with noisy fitness measurements. Molecular Diversity 1:53-68

Link SO, Bolton H Jr, Thiede ME, Rickard WH (1995) Response of downy brome to nitrogen and water. Journal of Range Management 48:290-297

Loehle C (1995) Anomalous responses of plants to CO2 enrichment. Oikos 73:181-187

Miller RM, Reinhardt DR, Jastrow JD (1995) External hyphal production of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in pasture and tallgrass prairie communities. Oecologia 103:17-23

Nobel PS, Pimienta-Barrios E (1995) Monthly stem elongation for Stenocereus queretaroensis: relationships to environmental conditions, net CO2 uptake and seasonal variations in sugar content. Environmental and Experimental Botany 35:17-24

Nobel PS, Wang N, Balsamo RA, Loik ME, Hawke MA (1995) Low-temperature tolerance and acclimation of Opuntia spp. after injecting glucose or methylglucose. International Journal of Plant Science 156:496-504

Oechel WC, Hastings SJ, Vourlitis GL, Jenkins MA, Hinkson CL (1995) Direct effects of CO2 in chaparral and Mediterranean-type ecosystems. In: JM Moreno, WC Oechel (eds) Global Change and Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York, 58-75

Pacala SW, Deutschman DH (1995) Details that matter: the spatial distribution of individual trees maintains forest ecosystem function. Oikos 74:357-365

Pacala SW, Gordon DM, Godfray HCJ (1995) Effects of social group size on information transfer and task allocation. Evolutionary Ecology 10:127-165

Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Curtis PS, Kubiske ME, Teeri JA, Vogel CS (1995) Atmospheric CO2, soil nitrogen and turnover of fine roots. New Phytologist 129:579-585

Reece CF, Krupa SV, Jager H-J, Roberts SW, Hastings SJ, Oechel WC (1995) Evaluating the effects of elevated levels of atmospheric trace gases on herbs and shrubs: a prototype dual array field exposures system. Environmental Pollution 90:25-31

Sarmiento J, LeQuere C, Pacala S (1995) Limiting future atmospheric carbon dioxide. Global Biogeochemical Cycles9:121-137

Smith JL, Halvorson JJ, Bolton H Jr (1995) Determination and use of a corrected control factor in the chloroform fumigation method of estimating soil microbial biomass. Biology and Fertility of Soils 19:287-291

Watt WB (1995) Allozymes in evolutionary genetics: beyond the twin pitfalls of "neutralism" and "selectionism". Revue de Suisse Zoology 102:869-882

1993 and 1994

Canham CD, Finziu A, Pacala SW, Burbank DH (1994) Causes and consequences of resource heterogeneity in forests: interspecific variation in light transmission by canopy trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:337-349

Canham CD, Pacala SW (1995) Linking tree population dynamics and forest ecosystem processes. In: C Jones, J Lawton (eds) Species Effects on Ecosystems. Chapman & Hall, New York, 84-94

Christensen K, Whitham TG, Keim P (1994) Herbivory and tree mortality across a pinyon pine hybrid zone. Oecologia 101:29-36

Durrett R, Levin SA (1994) Stochastic spatial models: a user's guide to ecological applications. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 343:329-350

Durrett R, Levin SA (1994) The importance of being discrete (and spatial). Theoretical Population Biology 46:363-394

Gehring CA, Whitham TG (1994) Comparisons of ectomycorrhizae on pinyon pines (Pinus edulis) across extremes of soil type and herbivory. American Journal of Botany 81:1509-1516

Halvorson JJ, Bolton H Jr, Smith JL, Rossi RE (1994) Geostatistical analysis of resource islands under Artemisia tridentata in the shrub-steppe. Great Basin Naturalist 54:313-328

Kauffman SA (1994) Random chemistry. Journal of Physical Chemistry 98:1142-1147

Levin SA (1994) Frontiers in ecosystems science. In: SA Levin (ed) Frontiers in Mathematical Biology, Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, Vol. 100. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 381-389

Miller RM, Jastrow JD (1994) VA mycorrhizae and biogeochemical cycling. In: FL Pfleger, RG Linderman (eds) Mycorrhizae and Plant Health. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, 189-212

Mummey DL, Smith JL, Bolton H Jr (1994) Nitrous oxide flux from a shrub-steppe ecosystem: sources and regulation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26:279-286

Pacala SW, Canham CD, Silander JA, Kobe R (1994) Sapling growth as a function of resources in a north temperate forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:2172-2183

Ribbens E, Pacala SW, Silander JA (1994) Seedling recruitment in forests: calibrating models to predict patterns of seedling dispersion. Ecology 75:1794-1806

Smith JL, Halvorson JJ, Bolton H Jr (1994) Spatial relationships of soil microbial C and N mineralization in a semi-arid shrub-steppe ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26:1151-1159

Turner RS, Hanson PJ, Huston MA, Garten CT Jr, Mulholland PJ (1993) A large-scale throughfall manipulation experiment on Walker Branch Watershed. In: L Rasmussen, T Brydges, P Mathy (eds) Experimental Manipulations of Biota and Biogeochemical Cycling in Ecosystems: Approach -- Methodologies -- Findings. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 96-105

Watt WB (1994) Allozymes in evolutionary genetics: self-imposed burden or extraordinary tool? Genetics 136:11-16